Indonesian military attacks against West Papua
This is a listing from US and Australian publications of known
Indonesian military operations against the people and nation of West Papua.
Although the Indonesian attacks 1950-1962 may appear inept and amature
productions by mordern standards of insurgency and warfare;
the intent to remove the West New Guinea Council government and the disregard
of Papua's human rights can not be denied.
During previous centuries there had been repeated Asian piracy efforts to
kidnap Papuan people as slaves;
during the WW-II Japanese invasion too many Papuan people had suffered at
the hands of an enemy working with Sukarno and his Javanese militia.
As the only pre-1950 West Papuan experience of Java was and continues to
consist of Asian piracy, and as an Axis power and oil supplier;
it is difficult to understand why Indonesia believed the US and other
populations would view its demands for Western New Guinea as anything
other than a neo-colonial land grab.
U.S. and Australian policy makers should also consider the traditional
fashion by which the Javanaese military elite have manipulated the
United States and others into supplying equipment, military Aid,
and political endorsement.
6 men landed at Sansapor on the north coast, they were quickly arrested
- Jan 1952
- Landing by boat on West New Guinea's Gag Island,
the New York Times reports Dutch saying 43 men were arrested by local police
though other references say 28 men;
the Indonesian men are quickly spotted and arrested.
- May 1953
17 Indonesians the Dutch claim were soldiers from a Celebes (Sulawesi)
detachment with a Papuan guide land near Fakfak;
intercepted by Dutch marines, the leading sergeant and two others were shot
before others were arrested and sentenced to one to six year in prison
- Oct 1953
21 armed men of the 25th Indonesian Infantry Regiment trained in guerrilla
warfare and another 21 locals recruited from Aru Island entered Etna Bay
flying a Dutch flag and proceeded inland.
Intercepted by marines, four were shot, five killed by Papuan natives, and
twenty eight arrested during first two months. Eventualy eleven died and the
others were sentenced to four years before being returned to Indonesia
- 9 Nov 1960
- After ten men desert the Pasukan Gerilya 100 unit lands along the
southern coast with 23 insurgents; after local Papuans report
seeing armed intruders 16 were captured and 7 were shot during the next four months.
- 14 Sep 1961
- Pasukan Gerilya 200 unit lands 32 insurgents with morta,
grenades and Lee Enfield rifles near Sorong;
quickly spotted by local Papuans 29 were captured, 2 shot,
and one believe eaten by crocodiles during three months attempting to evade capture.
- 15 Jan 1962
- Pasukan Gerilya 300 leaves Jakarta with approx. 115 insurgents
on four Jaguar class torpedo boats,
three boats reached the Aru Sea where two Dutch destroyers pursued them and
sunk the lead boat with Commodore Yos Sudarso.
51 survivors were picked up,
detained until March and with UN aid
(*) repatiated to Java when they
commenced training for PG-400 insurgency in May/1962.
On 2nd Jan 1962 Indonesia ordered the creation of the Mandala Command
headed by Brig. General Suharto to control operations against West Papua.
Although intending to continue the military effort into 1963 with
Operasi Jaya Wijaya, this proved unneccessary once the
group at the Whitehouse"
convinced the US President to coerce the Netherlands to sign the
"New York Agreement".
The Mandala Command decided to continue Pasukan Gerilya 300 infiltation efforts.
- Mar 1962
- A Pasukan Gerilya 300 unit using motorised canoes take cover on Gag Island
after been seen; they were soon captured.
- Mar 1962
- A Pasukan Gerilya 300 unit using motorised canoes take cover near
Waigeo Island before one was eaten by sharks while trying to
return to Java before being captured.
- 26 Apr 1962
- 40 guerrilla paratroopers of DPC Team 3 flew by Dakotas towards Fak-Fak;
the first guerrilla was arrested after asking a Papuan on a canoe for help
and who was delivered instead to the Police.
Three months later the last insurgent was arrested.
- 26 Apr 1962
- 32 guerrilla paratroopers of DPC Team 4 flew by Dakotas towards Kaimana;
evaded capture for almost three months but whose commander Lieut. Heru Sisnodo's diary was also captured,
translated in part sayinng:
"I am disillusioned because I did not select these [PGT] that face this
tough operation and I cry because the Papuans do not support us.
They do not give us food:
we must look for our own food or barter with our valuable equipment.
They report our movements to the Dutch."
- 15-25 May 1962
- PGT commandos and army paratroopers jump near Fak-Fak; 20 Police rangers
approach coastline with speedboats; PGT and army paratroopers jump near Kaimana;
and PGT commandos jump near Sorong while Pasukan Gerilya 400 made a sea landing.
The Police rangers were arrested on route to the beach, some PGT commandos
held a small village shortly near Sorong while the rest of the parachutists
were quickly captured or fleeing capture.
Kopassus as the most infamous and feared Indonesian forces,
deserves special mention.
Although a military Special Forces unit, the primary selection criteria
is closer to the old Soviet Political Officer criteria,
a dedication to the State which over-rides other considerations.
With a single minded duty to maintain or enforce unity of the State,
the Kopassus units have an unequal record in quelling civil movements
and populations suspected of supporting independence interests.
Kopassus remains one of Indonesia's trump cards for retaining the
twenty seven Provinces outside of Java.
|KOPASSUS / Special Forces names since 1950
|Kesatuan Komando Territorium 111|| || |
|Korps Komando AD||1953||KKAD|
|Resimen Pasukan Komando AD||1954||RPKAD|
|Resimen Para Komando AD||1959||RPKAD|
|Pusat Pasukan Khusus AD||1960||PUSPASSUS AD|
|Korps Pasukan Sandhi Yudha||1971||KOPASANDHA|