West Papua Information Kit

To promote Freedom, Democracy, and Human Rights
by giving you information with which to end the colonial rape of a beloved nation.

Sydney Morning Herald

1961 April 6th
Dutch "Could Not Stand Alone" In N.G. Invasion
From special correspondents and A.A.P. - Reuter
HOLLANDIA, Wednesday. - The Dutch Secretary for Home Affairs, Dr T H Bot, said yesterday that if New Guinea was invaded by a force of more than 1,000 "we could not be expected to stand alone." according to American Associated Press.
Dr Bot was being questioned on a statement he was reported as making earlier, that Holland would expect military support from Australia, Britain, and the United States if Indonesia invaded West New Guinea.
According to American Associated Press, Dr Bot said at the questioning: "How could I speak for those othe countries?"
The news agency quoted Dr Bot as saying that Holland was prepared for trouble from Indonesia.
He added: "We don't expect any trouble right now, but if trouble came, you could not expect Holland to handle it alone, could you?"
.. .. ..
1961 April 6th
NEW COUNCIL FOR WEST N.G. BEGINS SESSION
From special correspondents and A.A.P. - Reuter
HOLLANDIA, Wednesday. - The West New Guinea Council, with 23 native members out of 28, began its life today.
The Council has 16 elected members - only three of them Dutch - and 12 appointed members - two Dutch.
Twenty-two of the natives are from various parts of New Guinea. The other was born in Indonesia but has been in the Administration for 20 years.
The chairman Mr Sollewyn Gelpke, is a Durchman with 15 years of experience in the Administration.
The Dutch State Secretary for Home Affairs Dr T. Bot. ask the Council to make its wishes on self-determination known within a year.
He said in a speech to the Council that Holland would continue to give material and financial help to the Territory so it could achieve independence speedily.
Policy "Directly Influenced"
He said the development towards independence should take place against the Dutch Government's 10-year plan for the Territory.
The 10-year extent of the plan was not an arbitrary attempt to set a limit on the attainment of self-government, he said.
Dr Bot said the inauguration of the Council marked irrefutably the end, even on the highest administrative level, of a chiefly Netherlands official administration of New Guinea.
Government policy would be directly influenced by the institution of the Council he said.
A native member, Mr Nicholas Jouwa, told the Governor, Dr P. J. Platteel, who formally open the Council, that the people of West New Guinea must be given their own voice in the United Nations.
Mr Jouwe said he was disappointed that the United States did not send a representative to the inaugural meeting.
"Certain international political quarters regard the presense of the Dutch as a continuation of colonialism," he said.
U.S. Absence Attacked
"We Papuans now possess proof positive that this is not the case and we are pleased that other countries today are in a position to satisfy themselves of this fact.
"We hope to be in a position in the near future to personally convince the United States."
In New York today, the "New York Times" reported that the Dutch Foreign Minister, Mr J. Luns. said that the U.S. absence from the inaugural meeting was the latest example of American disregard for the Netherlands.
Mr Luns said the United States had accepted the invitation, then withdrawn.
State Department officials in Washington said the United States had not attended "for our own good and valid reasons."
The American decision not to be represented had nothing to do with alleged pressure from Indonesia they said.
Delegations from Australia, New Zealand, Britain and France attended today's inaugural meeting which was held in the Council's temporary quarters in the centre of Hollandia's business section.
The Australian delegation included:
·The President of the Senate, Sir Alister McMullin, who wore his gown and full bottomed wig to the ceremony.
·The Minister for Territories, Mr P M C Hasluck.
·The Administrator of Papua New Guinea, Brigadier D M Cleland.
·Six members of the new Papua-New Guinea Legislative Council, which will be opened officially on April 10.
Crowds of chattering gaily dressed people crowded the newly paved square opposite the Council chambers to watch delegates arrive.
In the audience flaxen-haired Dutch girls mingled with dark-visaged Papuans and people of East Indian origin.
A highlight of the celebrations was a fire-walking ceremony by natives from Biak, 450 miles from Hollandia.
The natives said the firewalking signified a young man had reached full manhood - symbolic of their country reaching representative Government.
1962 Aug 1st
[Front Page SYDNEY MORNING HERALD]
Agreement on West N.G. reported:
"HAND OVER NEXT MAY"

WASHINGTON, July 31 (A.A.P.-Reuter).- Dutch and Indonesian negotiators have reached agreement on "all essential points" for the transfer of the administration of West New Guinea, diplomatic sources said today.
The agreement, it is understood, will give Indonesia control of West New Guinea by May 30 next year.
The diplomatic sources expect that the two nations will now draw up a treaty at U.N. headquarters in New York. Probably they will sign it by August 15.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 2nd
Indonesia likely to control West N.G. Next May
1962 Aug 2nd
Appeasement and what comes after it
It is strange that no warning of history, no shadow of Nemesis, seems to have touched those who now hail the success of appeasement and "acclaimed" surrender to armed aggression as a triumph of international statesmanship. The preliminary agreement on West New Guinea was negotiated while one of the parties to it was subject to armed attack by the other and threatened with full scale war yet it was negotiated under the aegis of the United Nations and with the blessings of the United States. Not for the first time in our generation the shameful slogan of "peace at any price" has been used to justify the betrayal of principles.
Sorry Episode
From this sorry episode only the Dutch emerge with honour. They stood not just as defenders of their territory and its simple people but as defenders of the principle that force shall not be the arbiter in international disputes. Yet they found none to stand by them, The United Nations denied its Charter - and refused to intervene, Holland's great ally, the United States, exerted every pressure on her to bow to agression. The Australian Government, with the threat of aggressive war on the northern approaches and the national security deeply involved, made haste to cry it was no affair of Australia's.
Just how much it is Australia's affair, just how for removed from reality the cowardly ostrichism preached and practised by Mr Menzies and Sir Gurfield Barwick has been, must now appear. There is little reason to suppose that the prelimilnary surrender to military blackmail will not be made a formal capitalation within a fortnight. There is less reason to put any faith in the United Nations pledge to ensure that the Papuans are given after years of Indonesian rule - the right to determine their own political future. It is hypocrisy, to pretend that such a pledge can be redeemed or that the Indonesians have any intention of allowing it to be redeemed. Why indeed should they? They have demonstrated to the world and to themselves that the Charter of the United Nations is just another scrap of paper.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 4th
Letters to the Editor
Transfer of W. New Guinea
Problem in making for Australia

SIR, When the Minister for External Affairs "hopes that the final settlement of the West New Guinea problem will accord with the principles of the United Nations" one is entitled to wonder what on earth he is talking about.
The Minister may view with equanimity, even gratification, the outcome of this sordid affair, but others may not consider that Australia's contribution to this action, the handing over of the West New Guinea peoples to the mercies of an alien Indonesian rabble - is a matter for self-congratulation, even though the principal broker has been the United States.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 12th
PAPUANS, protesting against the proposed transfer of Dutch New Guinea to Indonesia, demonstrate outside the New Guinea Council building in Hollandia on Friday.
About 1,000 marchers, carrying anti-Indonesian banners and chanting "Down with Soekarno" took part in the mass rally - one of five in New Guinea.
The rally was orderly and there were no incidents.
1962 Aug 17th
Holland, Indonesia sign agreement on West New Guinea
13-year dispute ends at U.N.

New York, August 16 (A.A.P.). - Holland and Indonesia last night signed the formal agreement to transfer West New Guinea to Indonesia after May 1 next year.
The agreement provides for a cease-fire at 10.1 a.m. on Saturday (Sydney time) and for an immediate resumption of diplomatic relations between the two countries involved in the 13-year-old dispute.
In Holland, the reaction was bitter and many officials described the final agreement as worse than they had expected.
The Dutch Prime Minister, Dr J de Quay, said Holland had agreed to sign the treaty because it could not count on its allies, but he did not name them.
Papuan leaders in Merauke, Fak Fak and Sorong said they feared a "fierce and terrible" reaction when Papuans saw Indonesian troops moving in.
In Canberra, the External Affairs Minister, Sir Garfield Barwick, denied that Australia had placed pressure on Holland to sign the treaty (see page 3).
LEAFLETS IN JUNGLE
Indonesia today plans air missions over the jungles of West New Guinea to inform its troops of the cease-fire.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 18th
Natives fear Indonesian rule
8,000 Seek Asylum in Aust. N. Guinea

Eight thousand natives in the Sentani district of West New Guinea, near Hollandia, have asked for permission to move to Australian New Guinea.
They say they they do not want to accept Indonesian administration following Wednesday's Dutch-Indonesian agreement on the territory.
Bitterness at U.S.
The Dutch news agency said last night that the chairman of the Sentani District Council, Mr Joku had handed the request to the Australian officer in West New Guinea Mr P Mellison.
In Canberra last night a spokesman for the Department of External Affairs said the request had not yet been received.
The "Herald's" Canberra correspondent says that size of the first application for asylum in Papua-New Guinea will be an embarrassment to the Commonwealth Government.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 18th
No R.S.L. Protest on N.G.
The State president of the R.S.L., Mr W Yeo, yesterday told the State Congress of the League that nothing could be gained by carrying a resolution protesting against the Indonesia takeover in West New Guinea.
The mover proposed a resolution of protest against the transfer of West New Guinea from Holland to Indonesia, which will take place next May.
After Mr Yeo had spoken against it, the mover did not proceed with his motion.
Mr Yeo said later "Congress decided that as the signing over of West New Guinea was now a fait accompli, it was not worthwhile making any protest at present."
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 21st
Letters to the Editor
"Jingoism" and New Guinea
Sir, - I am an ex-Serviceman, and neither a pacifist nor a Communist, but my reading of contemporary events in South-East Asia and New Guinea leads me to conclusions vastly different from those expressed in recent "Herald" editorials.
.. .. ..
John Child, Gladesville.
____
Sir, - Thank you, indeed, for your very powerful and moving editorial, "Aggression Proclaimed Respectable." One feels ashamed that Holland was thus forced into the position of allowing her West New Guinea people to be now governed by Indonesia.
What hope, after Indonesian rule, even if it is written on United Nations paper, will they have of choosing their ultimate freedom? They have, indeed, been thrown to the wolves and the Communist front thus brought on to Australia's very doorstep.
One feels proud that the "Herald" has championed the cause of these West Papuans and shown to the world the pathetic weakness of the Australian Government.
(Canon) G.G. O'KEEFFE.
Double Bay.
____
Sir, - With the conclusion of the Indonesian-Dutch agreements on West New Guinea, Australia's prestige falls to an all-time low. Or rather the prestige of our leaders - for none seem to raise a voice in protest.
A world which once looked upon the Atlantic Charter - with all its legal weakness - as a new path for human endeavour to follow should stand aghast at this cowardly betrayal of the Papuan people who live in the western end of New Guinea, particularly when United Nations pundits are screaming their heads off for immediate self-government and independence for the same race in eastern New Guinea. Free one lot; enslave the other!
Surely, soon the people of the United States will squirm when they learn to what depths their political leaders have fallen by this betrayal, not only of the simple Papuans but of the high principles the American people initiated when they asked that colonisation of any race by another should vanish from the earth.
RALPH RANDELL.
Vaucluse.
____
Sir, - As a fourth generation Australian, I have always been very proud that this nation has never in the past been intimidate by any country, either Asiatic or Western, that cared to rattle the sabre. It is this background that our great tradition of Anzac has come from.
What is the position now that the Government has been frightened by threats of war by an Asiatic Power to forsake an ally and friend of this country, namely the Dutch?
It is so contrary to the past tradition of the Anzac spirit, which has done so much to form the Australian way of life!
E. J. PERKS
North Sydney
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 21st
1962 Aug 21st
New Guinea statement Big Test for Barwick
by our political correspondent
The decreasing number of shout-hearted Liberal and Country Party back benchers who still feel there is a faint hope the Government will survive another election must be waiting for the promised statement on West New Guinea by the Minister for External Affairs, Sir Garfield Barwick, with acute apprehension.
Up to date, Sir Garfield has given little indication of awareness that the fate of Dutch New Guinea is viewed by hundreds of thousands of Australians with most serious concern. At no stage has this comparatively inexperienced Minister seemed to realise that the enforced settlement of the Dutch-Indonesian dispute will result in a dangerous degree of isolation for Australia.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 22nd
1962 Aug 22nd Church
"Explosive Situation" seen in New Guinea Settlement
The Bishop Armidale, the Rt. Rev. J. S. Moyes, yesterday said that with the West New Guinea settlement, Australians were in an explosive situation which could affect areas and peoples beyond the limits of West New Guinea.
...
"There are serious and far-reaching moral issues involved in the future of West New Guinea, and that is my concern.
"It should be made clear to Australians that the agreement signed between the Netherlands and Indonesia was not negotiated under United Nations auspices, but with Mr Ellsworth Bunker of the United States, as chairman and mediator.
"Neither partyy acted specifically at the behest of the United Nations. The agreement still has to come before the Assembly for discussion.
"As far as the majority of the members of the United Nations are concerned, it seems to me that their view was expressed some eight months ago on a motion brought forward by the Brazzaville powers, namely that the United Nations should then send a 'Presence' into New Guinea to assume control of the administration. The voting was a few short of 75 per cent required to make this mandatory.
"The matter was never discussed in the Security Council for the reason that the veto would have prevented any decision being reached.
"Three facts to Remember"
"We Australians should remember and think upon three facts about the attitude of President Soekarno of Indonesia.
"First, despite repeated assurances to the contrary, he did send armed forces against New Guinea, and as recently as three days before the agreement was signed.
"Second, apart from his own immediate minority political party, the only political party which is lawful in Indonesia is the Communist Party, which is the next largest (after Russia and China) in the world.
"Third, the leaders of all other political parties in Indonesia are or have been in recent times imprisioned. They include such distingulished men as Dr Sjahrir and Dr Rurn.
Questions for Government
"Finally there are positive steps which, as citizens, we might well ask our Government to take, for we are in the midst not of a quietly argued case in Court, but of an explosive situation which can affect areas and peoples beyond the limits of West New Guinea.
"(1) Will the Government give a clear and unequivocal undertaking that it will grant asylum without question to political refugees from West New Guinea?
"(2) Will it instruct our representative in the United Nations to press for the concrete guarantees that there will be a genuinely free vote of the indigenous population in 1969, pressing indeed to the point of insisting that there be an effective 'Presence' of the United Nations in West New Guinea up to and including that time?
"(3) Will the Government consider that it might be absurd to talk of independence of one part of New Guinea and not the other, and, therefore, set their minds and hands to devising and putting to the United Nations a scheme for the unification and independence of the whole island?
1962 Aug 22nd
1962 Aug 22nd
1962 Aug 22nd
Report to Parliament
Barwick Speech - from P.1

course of the discussions had not been smooth. At one point it appeared likely that the Indonesian representatives might return to Djakarta, causing a suspension of the negotions, if not worse.
.. .. ..
'Improvisation, Capitulation,' says Whitlam
CANBERRA, Tuesday.- The Federal Government has pursued a policy of improvisation, procrastination and capitulation on West New Guinea, the Acting Leader of the Opposition, Mr E G Whitlam, said in the House of Representatives today.
  "We want to see that from now on there is a policy of principle and co-operation," he said.
  Mr Whitlam was replying to the statement on West New Guinea made by the Minister for External Affairs, Sir Garfield Barwick.
  Mr Whitlam said Indonesia regarded itself as the "successor State" to the Dutch in the East Indies. "But many islands in the Pacific are administered by different countries," he said. "Some islands are the cause of dispute between different countries. It is the duty of the Australian Government, without further delay, to see that orderly processes are evolved for following our international principles and for ensuring peace in this area."

"Serious Gaps" in Speech
  Mr Whitlam said there were serious gaps in Sir Garfield's speech, in references to the past and future.
  In the past 12 years, the Australian Government had several times set out its obligations and expressed its interest in this problem in more forthrights terms than now.
  The first Minister for External Affairs in the Menzies Government, Sir Percy Spender, had said on June 8 1959, that should discussions between Holland and Indonesia tend towards any arrangement which would alter the status of West New Guinea, the matter was no longer one merely for those two parties.
  Sir Percy's successor now Lord Casey, had said Australia had a right to a voice in any discussions which would change the status of the Territory.
  "Such was then the official attitude of the Government - not that we were parties principal as the Minister now disowns, but that we had a very real interest in the matter," Mr Whitlam said.
  The Prime Minister, Mr Menzies, had said after the visit of the Indonesian Defence Minister, General Nasution, that Australia's principal concern was the matter of self-determination. Sir Garfield had said this again last March.
  The principle of self-determination had been placed in a "very subsiding spot" in statements which Australia's representatives had made in the U.N. General Assembly since 1954.
  However, Mr Menzies, in 1959 and Sir Garfield last March had stressed that self-determination was Australia's principal concern.
  The Government had never adhered to this principle, because Mr Menzies and Sir Garfield had said Australia would waive the principle of self-determination if the two parties came to a peaceful agreement or if the World Court gave a judgment on the case.
  Mr Holt: Read out your leader's declaration of war.
  Mr Whitlam: I should have thought the Treasurer had made a sufficient hash of his own portfolio without coming into External Affairs as well.

Threat of Force
  Mr Whitlam said that in February 1959, a communique issued by the Indonesian Foreign Minister and Lord Casey, then Australian Minister for External Affairs stated that there should be no recourse to armed force whether of major or minor operation to give effect to Indonesia's territorial claims.
  The communique said that any negotiations between Indonesia and Holland should be voluntary and free of any threat or duress.
  Mr Whitlam said there was no question that the agreement reached last week between Indonesia and Holland was arrived at after armed infiltration and the threat of force.

Earlier Proposition
  The Dutch had said, in effect, that there had been duress on them to make the agreement and that they could not count on the support of their allies.
  In 1957 the United Nations had considered a resolution which would have asked Indonesia and Holland to pursue their efforts to solve their dispute in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter.
  "Sir Garfield said this matter could not have been satisfactorily dealt with in the Security Council or the General Assebly," said Mr Whitlam.
  Sir Garfield now supported the attitude that this dispute should have been dealth with by face to face negotiations between Indonesia and Holland, with some third party exercising his good office on behalf of the United Nations, said Mr Whitlam.
  This was the proposition put before the United Nations in 1954, 1956 and 1957 and which was opposed on each occasion by the Australian Government.
  Mr Whitlam said: "On every occasion, there was a majority of votes in the General Assembly and in the political committee in favour of the United Nations dealing with this matter. But the necessary two-thirds majority was not obtained inthe General Assembly.
  "The proposals failed largely because the Australian Government was fore-most in seeing that the United Nations did not deal with the matter.
  "If the Australian Government had co-operated then in the exercise by the United Nations of its good offices, the matter could have been settled with closer regard for the principle of self-determination, to which all members of the United Nations are bound, and without the deplorable resort to force and the breach of undertakings in our neighbourhood in the last year."
  Sir Garfield had left serious gaps in the history of the dispute.
  Immediately Mr Whitlam finished speaking Sir Wilfrid Kent Hughes (Lib., Vic.) asked the Speaker, Sir John McLeay if the West New Guinea statement could be debated during the Budget debate.
  Sir John ruled that there could be some reference to West New Guinea in the Budget debate.
  Mr Whitlam: We want a full opportunity to debate that statement.
1962 Aug 22nd
'Sound Basis Of Goodwill' In South-east Asia
CANBERRA, Tuesday. - Australia had a sound basis of goodwill in South-east Asia, though the struggle against Communism there would be long, hard and often unrewarding, the Minister for External Affairs, Sir Garfield Barwick, said today.

Sir Garfield was reporting to the House of Representatives on his tour of South-East Asian countries during the parliamentary recess between May and July.
He visited Vietnam, Formosa, South Korea, Japan, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, Malaya, and Indonesia.
He discussed his visit to Indonesia in a separate statement today on the West New Guinea dispute.
.. .. ..
1962 Aug 23rd
'Regret' at events in West N.G.
CANBERRA, Wednesday. - The settlement of the West New Guinea dispute showed a "fall in standards of international morality," Mr P E Lucock (C.P., NSW) told the House of Representatives tonight.
Mr Lucock, who is chairman of Committees in the House, accused the United States of failing to realise the danger of appeasement, and said Australia should stand firm on the conviction that aggression, could not pay.
Holland and Indonesia last week signed an agreement to transfer West New Guinea to Indonesia after May 1963.
Speaking in the Budget debate, Mr Lucock said he regretted what had happened in West New Guinea in recent months.
He said that, seven years ago, a mistake had been made in not presenting to the United Nations a stronger case for the indigenous people of West New Guinea.
"I am not going to refer to the rights and wrongs of the Indonesian or Dutch case." he said.
"One thing of disturbing importance is that recently we have seen the standard of international morality again forgotten or lowered.
Lowering of Standards
"The agreement between Holland and Indonesia was signed while there were still Indonesian troops in West New Guinea.
"I Feel that is, unfortunately, evidence of the lowering of standards of international morality.
"In the 1930s we saw a parallel and we know what happened in 1939.
"I don't want to see this pattern followed again."
No voice has been raised in the United Nations against Indonesian aggression in Dutch New Guinea.
The Federal Opposition could take no comfort from this, because it had contributed in no small way to this attitude in the United Nations.
"The time has come when we must stand firm on the conviction that aggression, no matter who uses it, cannot pay," said Mr Lucock.
"I believe the United Nations has a great deal to learn in regard to the international situation.
.. .. ..
1963 May 1
Martial Law Comes Now To West New Guinea

THIS afternoon the blue and white flag of the United Nations will be lowered in Hollandia's dusty square, and the red and white flag of Indonesia will fly alone over the western half of the world's second-largest island - New Guinea.
Thw band and the goose-stepping Indonesian guard of honour have been rehearsed many times in the last week. The ceremony and President Soekarno's message, which will be read by Indonesia's Minister for Foreign Affairs, Dr Subandrio, will signify the alignment of West New guinea with Indonesia's increasing nationalism.
But more symbolic for the 700,000 West Papuans are the capital's empty warehouses and the mobile police - specialists in quelling civilian riots - who already nightly walk the streets toting the world's best automatic weapons donated or bought from the East or the West.
The people of West New Guinea today come under the martial law which applies to the rest of Indonesia. They also become involved in its economy, whose weakness has sparked rice riots even in the capital, Djakarta. .. .. ..
1963 May 5
Tom-toms in welcome to Suekarno

WEST IRIAN LANDING
KOTA BARU, Saturday (A.A.P.). - Dozens of outrigger canoes full of singing, chanting Papuans welcome Indonesia's President Soekarno to West Irian today.
Papuans in warpaint and wearing bird of paradise feathers in their headdressea chanted and beat tom-tom drums as he arrived.
But the Papuan crowd of about 5,000 later was silent during the landing ceremonies. .. .. ..
West Irian would be given the widest possible autonomy in the administration and economy while the Central Government would only give "guiding principles," Dr Subandrio said. .. .. ..
He said there would be no transmigration of other people from other regions to West Irian. .. .. ..
1963 August 26
W. Irian Vote Opposed

DJAKARTA, Aug. 25 (A.A.P.-Reuter). - The West Irian Legislative Assembly has passed a resolution negating the proposed plebiscite of self-determination agreed on by Indonesia and Holland.
A report from Kota Baru said that
.. .. ..
1963 October 27
Indies colonel warns Aust.

DJAKARTA, Sat. (A.A.P.-Reuter).- An Indonesian naval commander said today the navy was ready to face "the Malaysia supporter, Australia."
Lieut.-Colonel Widowo, naval commander in West Irian, told this to Government-controlled Antara news agency.
Antara also quoted the acting commander of West Irian, Colonel Mardanus, as saying that any elements trying to set up a free Papua would be crushed. .. .. ..
1964 May 18
West Irians "Pledged To Indonesia"

DJAKARTA, May 17 (A.A.P.).- The Indonesian news agency, Antara, said today a convention of all levels of the population of West Irian (formerly Dutch New Guinea) had pledge its wish to be part of Indonesia.
The pledge is reported to have been part of a formal declaration adopted by the convention and read by the Provincial Governor. The report from Sukarno-pura (formerly Kota Bharu) did not say who organised the the convention.
.. .. ..
1965 August 17
Djakarta admits W. Irian revolt

DJAKARTA, Monday.- Twenty-four persons have been arrested in West Irian for planningto explode oil installations on Biak Island.
The rebel movement in the former Dutch West New Guinea was admitted in Indonesia today. The leading Djakarta newspaper "Sinar Harapan" ("Light of Hope") reported today that "an armed subversive movement had tried to create disorder in Manokwari at the Bird Head area in the western part of West Irian."
.. .. ..
"Twenty four persons who planned to explode the installations with dynamite have been captured by the troops, with support from the local people."
.. .. ..
1965 August 23
U.S. 'spies' held says Indonesia

DJAKARTA, Sunday. - A number of American missionaries had been arrested as "spies" in West Irian and taken to Menado in the northern Celebes, Antara news agency said today.
.. .. ..
1965 August 25
Revolt in West Irian

The Indonesian Press has now confirmed Denis Warner's report, first published in the "Herald" on August 16, that a tribal revolt had broken out in the Manowari area of West New Guinea. According to the authorities the news had hitherto been withheld "because it was a small thing and in order that the people's attention to the 20th anniversity celebrations of Indonesia independence would not be affected." The revolt has now been "fully settled."
.. .. ..
1965 August 25
Djakarta admission
Unrest in West Irian "subdued"


DJAKARTA, Tuesday.- Indonesia admitted today that there had been trouble in West Irian 10 days ago according to Djakarta newspapers.
The newspapers quoted the Secretary-Co-ordinator of West irian Affairs, Brigadier-General Sutjipto, as saying there had been "a certain unrest" in West irian.
However, it had no been "fully settled," he said.
.. .. ..
1965 August 30
Move on West Irian missionaries

DJAKARTA, Sunday.- The Indonesian Government is seeking ways to replace foreign missionaries with Indonesians in West Irian.
.. .. ..
It quotes as examples,
an incident in Merauke "where a Dutch pastor was shot dead for insulting our service man (it happened early this year when a policeman fired three shots on Pastor Smith on charges of insulting him)
and the explusion of an American missionary for being involved in matters that might disturb public order."
.. .. ..
(A.A.P.-Reuter)
1966 April 22
OUTBURST ON LEADERSHIP

.. .. ..
President Sukarno called for a mammoth Indonesian internal migration involving the movement of two million people a year from Java to West Irian, Borneo and the Celebes.
.. .. ..
1966 August 15
"Gloomiest day" for West Irian

From Frank Palmos, who is visiting West Irian
BIAK, Sunday.- The West Irianese say they are going to have the "gloomiest-ever" celebrations on Wednesday - Indonesia's national day.
Clearly, West Irian is suffering more than any other province since the disruptions which began in Djakarta last October. .. .. ..
There has been a cholera outbreak on Biak Island whic killed at least 45 people, 30 in one village, over the past four months.
1966 August 27
Troops hunt rebel Chief

SUKARNAPURA, West Irian, Friday.- Indonesian Government troops are combing the mountainous jungles of West Irian for a tribal chief, leader of an armed rebellion to set up an independent Papuan State.
Fritz Awom, chief of the fanatical Arfak Tribe, attacked the Indonesian Army barracks in the city of Manokwari, on West Irian's north western coast, in April last year.
About 200 rebels were killed and 600 captured, but Chief Awom escaped back into his native jungles.
Today, more than a year after the abortive uprising, Indonesian soldiers, helped by now peaceful Arfaks are still scouring the Manokwari region for Awom.
(A.A.p.-Reuter)
1967 March 14
Trouble in West Irian

THE CHARGE by an Indonesian Congressman from West Irian that about a thousand tribesmen have been killed by Indonesian Government forces in the Vogelkop area of West Irian may be exaggerated in point of numbers. But Mr Papare's statement - it is a sign of the new wind blowing through Djakarta that it was allowed to be publicly made and publicly reported - leaves no doubt that discontent with Indonesian rule in West New Guinea has reached the point of open rebellion on a scale which called for the intervention of Air Force bombers.
.. .. ..
1967 July 18
WEST IRIAN REBEL LEADER KILLED

DJAKARTA, Monday.- A leader of the Papua (West Irian) Freedom Organisation has been shot dead with four of his close aides.
The official news agency Antara today quoted a military bulletin as saying that the leader, Perments Awon, and his four friends were shot dead in a clash with Indonesian troops recently in Manokwari.
Some 400 followers of Awon were killed in Manokwari this year when Indonesian planes strafed the area, the Associated Press said.
RESENT
The military commander of West Irian, Brigadier General Bintoro, said Awon and his four followers were receiving help from foreign Powers. He did not elaborate.
The Papyan Freedom Organisation, which has been carrying out guerilla warfare for the last two years, has claimed that the West Irianese are not given proper treatment by the Central Government.
They resent "Javanese" control of the local government there.
Living conditions were much better under the Dutch colonial rule than now they have claimed.
(A.A.P.)
1968 August 13
162 Irianese killed in rebellion

DJAKARTA, Monday.- Indonesia's Army Chief General Panggabean, said today 162 tribesmen had been killed in West Irian in their two-year-old rebellion in the coastal area of Manokwari.
Another 138 had been taken prisoner.
A total of 3,539 tribesmen had surrendered since the Arfak tribe rose against the Indonesian Government after the 1967 takeover.
(A.A.P.-Reuter)
1968 December 6
W. Irian general for talks

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Indonesian authorities have long claimed that Irianese rebels are hiding over the border in neighbouring New guinea and are operating as agents of the so-called Free Papua Organisation, which seeks independence from Djakarta for West Irian.
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Sources said later that General Edhie might seek to close the frontier off to fleeing rebels as the military operation involving some 6,000 troops supported by the Air Force continues.
(A.A.P.-Reuter)
1969 January 14
Battalions to restore order in West Irian

DJAKARTA, Monday.- Two Indonesian infantry battalions will soon leave Macassar, South Celebes, For West Irian to restore peace and order, the official Armed Forces News Service, PAB, reported today.
The South Celebes military commander, Brigadier - General Sajidiman, had said that the recent surrender of the West Irian rebel leader Lodewijk Mandatjan did not mean that the work of the Indonesian armed forces was over.
''Our job now is to win the forthcoming act of self-determination in West Irian,'' he said.
.. .. ..
Indonesia troops are reported to be increasing operations against West Irianese rebel remnants led by Fritz Avown.
The United Nations special envoy for West Irian affairs, Mr F. Ortiz Sanz, has returned to Djakarta from West Irian, where he met local officials and tribal chiefs to help them arrange for self-determination.
1969 May 7
W. Irian tribes in revolt, block airfields

DJAKARTA, Tuesday.- Tribesmen in West Irian's central ranges have revolted against the Indonesian Governmet and blocked five airfields, the West Irian Affairs chief Dr Sudjarwo announced today.
Dr Sudjarwo said 500 paratroops had been dropped into the area to deal with the trouble which, be said, began two weeks ago.
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Rocket attack denied
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1969 July 9
All set for final phase of West Irian poll

DJAKARTA, Tuesday.- All is now ready for the final phase of the act of free choice in West Irian, according to the semi-official Antara News Agency.
The agency said all the 1,075 members of the Consultative Assemblies had been chosen in the eight regencies of the territory.
.. .. ..
(A.A.P.-Reuter)
1969 August 1
IRIAN'S ACT OF 'FREE' CHOICE

[ Photo ]
West Irianese delegates at Nabire discuss whether to remain part of Indonesia. The vote was a unanimous "yes." The delegates sweltered in unfamilar khaki shirts and trousers.
West Irianese have decided unanimously in six of the territory's eight regencies to remain part of the Indonesian republic.
Yet an air-mailed report received yesterday from the A.A.P.-Reuter correspondent in West Irian, Hugh Lunn, suggests many delegates have voted against their true wishes.
Describing the recent act of free choice at Nabire, he said one local leader had told a correspondent that 100 of the 175 delegates opposed Indonesian rule.
In order to see the reporter the man had hidden in the lavatory of a ship anchored off the coast as a hotel.
In hurried whispers the Irianese said, "There are 100 delegates who would like to speak out against Indonesia, but they are worried what will happen. Can you tell us nothing will happen?"
But the next day at the discussions he told the delegates, "Indonesia stretches from Sabang to Merauke. There is no other choice but to go with Indonesia."
During the meeting another delegate slipped a hastily written two-lined note to a reporter sitting near: "These men here have been bribed. They don't know what they are saying."
Lunn himself had a note furtively given him, demanding that the United Nations declare Irian independent.
1969 August 8
ALP FEDERAL CONFERENCE
.. .. ..
'OPEN DOOR' POLICY ON IRIANESE
MELBOURNE, Friday.- A Federal Labor Government would adopt "an open-door policy " on political refugees from Irian, the A.L.P. Conference decided today.
It also would press for Indonesian guarentees for the personal safety of refugees.
The conference adopted a statement of policy on the Irian question after hearing a speech from the Federal Opposition Leader, Mr E. G. Whitlam.
Mr Whitlam said the unfortunate position in Irian was a legacy of the failures of successive Liberal Foreign Ministers.
The Australian Government had encouraged the Dutch to stay on in Irian, so that now there seemed no prospect of integration of Irian with other Melanesian countries.
STANDARDS
The so-called act of free choice held recently had not conformed with the democratic standards which the A.L.P. espoused, Mr Whitlam said.
The resolution passed by the conference described the act of free choice as an "undemocratic action by the Government of Indonesia."
The conference declared that the people of Irian had an inalienable right to determinae their own form of government.
It called on the Federal Government to adopt the same open-door policy towards refugees which a Labour Government would adopt.
Plicy on Wheat outlined
.. .. ..
1969 August 4
IRIANESE END ACT OF FREE CHOICE

DJAYAPURA, West Irian, Sunday. - West Irianese delegates yesterday completed the Act of Free Choice in which they voted to remain part of Indonesia.
The final vote was taken by the Djayapura regency, the last of the eight regencies to declare their preference.
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1969 August 5
HOW FREE WAS THE FREE CHOICE
Fearless woman spoke out
From HUGH LUNN
MANOKWARI (West Irian), Monday. - It was a wrinkled old Papuan woman, at a guess aged 78, who made the first open protest against the inevitable progress of Indonesian victory in the Act of Free Choice.
.. .. ..
After the handshake she dropped both hands to her left ankle and lifted up part of her loose batik skirt so that only a slit of leg was visible. In the same movement she produced a thick envelope from beneath.
"Five thousand names," she said in Indonesia, shook hands again and disappeared back into the crowd.
.. .. ..
1970 October 29
WEST IRIAN MASSACRE CLAIM
PORT MORESBY, Wednesday. - A letter to a West Irianese now living in Papua has reported that Indonesian soldiers killed 88 people from a village on Biak Island, West Irian.
The acting manager of the New Guinea News Service, Mr Luke Sela, said today that the letter was apprantely written by a recent refugee from West Irian now living in Yako holding camp near Vanimo in the West Sepik district of New Guinea.
He said the letter was shown last Monday to Mr Peter Major of the New Guinea News Service.
Mr Major said the letter, written in Bahasa Indonesia, referred to the amnesty the Indonesians offered to people who fled West Irian for Papua-New Guinea.
The letter said: "On Biak Island Indonesian soldiers have killed Mrs Jocob Adadikam and Miss Juli Bonsapia, a schoolteacher, and 86 villagers from a village on Biak."
The report of the killings is unconfirmed and must be treated with caution.
1970 November 6
NG BORDER INTRUSION: PATROL SENT OUT
From IAN HICKS
PORT MORESBY, Thursday.- An armed Australian patrol is investigating an Indonesian intrusion across the West Irian border into the West Sepik district of Papua-New Guinea.
The Indonesian are reported to have burnt down village "bush houses" during the intrusion, on October 24. One unconfirmed report says shots were fired.
The Administration said today the intrusion had occurred near Sekot-chiau, a village perched on the border 70 miles south of Vanimo.
Australian and Indonesian officials had since made an aerial inspection.
"Indonesian authorities have ordered the immediate return of their patrol and made it clear that they regard the occurance as serious," the Administration said.
The patrol, which has not yet reported back, is understood to comprise Administration officials and police.
1970 November 16
WEST IRIAN DEATHS CONFIRMED
JAKARTA, Wednesday. - The Indonesian Army confirmed today that its troops had killed four West Irianese rebels at the Sentani Airport near the West Irian capital of Djajapura.
Senior Army officials in Djajapura had earlier denied reports of the shooting and the military commander for West Irian, Brigadier General Acub Zainal, refused to comment on the reports during a recent visit to Jakarta.
.. .. ..
1970 December 27
DEATHS CLAIM
PORT MORESBY, Sat. - Indonesian troops have shot dead another 20 natives on Biak Island in Indonesian West Irian, according to a letter smuggled into Papua New Guinea today.
The letter was brought over the border by 48 political refugees who fled West Irian.
The letter arrived over secret routes established by Free Papua Organisation of West Irianese natives who have been trying, since 1963, to force Indonesians to grant them independence.
Indonesian troops, the letter said., swooped on Opuri village, at the western end of Biak, last month, and sprayed natives huts with automatic weapons.
Survivors were lined up, questioned and then executed, it was claimed.
1972 July 11
Hunt for Irian rebels
JAKARTA, Monday. - Forty-five Indonesian troops have been dropped to the Senggi district in West Irian, near the border with Papua New Guinea, to hunt down West Irianese rebels who ambushed a military post there.
A spokesman of the Defence Ministry said today that "outlawed trouble makers," the official description for the Irianese rebels, had ambushed soldiers playing volleyball on the afternoon of June 18.
He declined to comment on casualties, but informed sources said a corporal was killed.
The spokesperson said the rebels fled to Ubrub, east of Senggi, after grabbing three weapons and some radio equipment.
Troops parachuted near the border had been ordered to crush the rebels and close the Ubrub area.
Official reports on two other incidents, in which three soldiers were killed, had not been received yet he said.
The West Irian military commander Brigadier-General Acub Zaenal flew to Jakarta last week presumably for consultation with the Central Government on the incidents.
The incidents are the first in which Indonesian troops have been killed since Jakarta held the Act of Free Choice in 1969 when West Irians elected to remain a part of Indonesia.
The rebels, members of the "Free Papua Movement," have been striving for an independent Papua State separated from Indonesia.
(AAP).
1974 December 3
Irian's rag-tag rebels
Indonesia wipes out resistance - almost
From MICHAEL RICHARDSON, Staff Correspondent, the first Australian newspaper correspondent given permission to make a working visit to Irian Jaya since 1969. JAKARTA, Monday. - Indonesian armed forces have crushed rebel Irianese fighting under the banner of the Free Papua Movement (OPM) into a rag-tag remnant based in jungle near the border with Papua New Guinea.
The resistance fighters have struggled in vain for more than 11 years against Indonesian control since the former Dutch colony was handed over in 1963.
Observers do not believe they can return to their strength of five years ago unless conditions turn very sour indeed for the estimated 700,000 Irianese in the province, or unless the rebels receive strong support from outside.
In the past few years secessionist and anti-Indonesian sentiments among the indigenous population have been withered by a combination of military repression, tight political control, nationalistic education policy, a rising pace of economic development and buying off Irianese radicals with offers of reward and status.
.. .. ..
1976 February 26
Irianese get warning
RABAUL, Wednesday. - Irianese who used Papua New Guinea soil for their political activities, would be deported, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Defence and Overseas Trade, Sir Maori Kiki, said today.
He was commenting on a statement released on Monday by a group of 200 Irian Jaya living in Port Morseby who said West Papuan freedom fighters should consider enlisting communist help for their cause.
Sir Maori, noting that the statement was a breach of the agreement which allows Irianese refugees to live in Papua New Guinea, said he would not permit them to indulge in political activities here.
Under international convention, he said, PNG was bound to provide refuge for certain people but not to tolerate them trying to involve the country in their political disputes.
1976 February 28
Reports of Indonesian moves on Irianese
From MICHAEL RICHARDSON
SINGAPORE, Friday. - Indonesia has reportedly launched an intensified military campaign in an effort to wipe out rebels in its west New Guinea Territory of Irian Jaya.
.. .. ..
Radio Australia reported last night that the Indonesian Ambassador in Port Moresby told one of its correspondents that Irianese people working on development plans n the province were constantly harassed by the rebels.
But the envoy claimed popular support for the rebels was waning and that their number had dwindled to about 500.
.. .. ..
1977 January 3
No protest over Irian rebel's trip
From JOHN WAUGH, Staff Correspondent
PORT MORESBY, Wednesday. - The Indonesian Embassy here said today it would not protest against the visit of the Irian Jaya rebel, Seth Rumboren, to Port Moresby on the eve of a State visit to Indonesia by the Papua New Guinea Prime Minister, Mr Somare.
But a spokesman for the embassy said today: "We are not very happy at all for the rebel to go here and there in Papuan New Guinea or elsewhere.
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1977 January 13
Rebel chief tried to swim to freedom
By Peter Hastings
Seth Rumkoren, the military leader of Irian Jaya's anti-Indonesian OPM Freedom Movement, was captured by two sharp-witted Public Works Department officials on his now much-publicised visit to Papua New Guinea late last month.
The self-styled general, one of three self-styled presidents of the Independent Republic of Papua Barat (West Papua), was trying to visit Irianese friends in Vanimo, PNG, to check possibilities of obtaining PNG residence.
.. .. ..
1977 January 14
Timor 'victory' for Indonesia
From Michael Richardson
JAKARTA, Thursday. - Indonesia scored a significant diplomatic break- through today when Papua New guinea acknowledged that the East Timor question was "entirely a domestic matter" for Indonesia.
.. .. ..
1977 May 7
Indonesians killed in Irian Jaya uprisings
JAKARTA, Friday. - Rioting by villagers in the remote Baliem Valley of Irian Jaya is believed to have turned into a local uprising against Indonesian security forces, killing at least nine Indonesian soldiers and police.
During a series of violent clashes over the past fortnight, Indonesian security posts have been overrun, their occupants killed and weapons and ammunition seized.
The insurgents tried to prevent troop reinforcements being flown in by destroying about five airfields.
.. .. ..
1977 May 11
Attempt to kill NG rebel leader
From JOHN WAUGH, Staff Correspondent
PORT MORESBY, Tuesday. - The newly reorganised Irian Jaya rebel movement is reported to have tried to assassinate Brigadier-General Seth Rum korem, former "President" of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of West Papua, and guerilla leader, in an ambush on the PNG-Indonesian border about six days ago.
The general, who was ousted last year by his second in command, Jacob Prai, is believed to have escaped with some of his followers.
.. .. ..
1977 May 23
500 Irianese cross border into PNG
From JOHN WAUGH
PORT MORESBY, Sunday. - Almost 500 Irianese refugees have crossed the Indonesia-PNG border in the past 10 days to seek sanctuary in Papua New Guinea, informed sources said today.
The refugees from the Irambu and Pau areas of Irian Jaya, are thought to be fleeing because of an Indonesian clamp-down following disruption during the recent Indonesian elections.
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1977 May 25
New oil find in Indonesia
JAKARTA, Tuesday. - The Indonesian State-owned oil company, Pertamina, today announced the discovery of a new oil well capable of producing 2,700 barrels of crude a day.
The well lies some 62 kilometres south-west of Sorong, in Irian Jaya, in the Walio and Cenderawasih field, the company's spokesman said.
(Reuter)
1977 May 27
Troops flown to Irian Jaya rebellion
From JOHN WAUGH, Staff Correspondent
PORT MORESBY, Thursday. - Indonesian commando have been airlifted into central Irian Jaya following attacks on Indonesian Government forces, the blocking of airstrips, and the burning of Government posts in villages throughout the Baliem Valley.
The Indonesian Government has declared the valley off-limts to all tourists and is believed conducting a search-and-kill operation for a small guerilla detachment from the Provisional Revolutionary Government of West Papua which reportedly organised the uprising.
Indonesian troops have killed a number of villagers since the uprising began on May 2, and wounded others in reprisal raids against local people.
.. .. ..
1977 May 29
Indonesia claims tribal revolt in Irian cushed
JAKARTA, Saturday (AAP-Reuter). - Indonesian paratroops have crushed a rebellion by tribesmen in the central highlands of Irian Jaya, army sources said.
"The trouble is over. The revolt has been quelled," the sources said yesterday. They declined to go into details.
Troops of the special army strategic forces were dropped into the Baliem Valley beneath the mountainous backbone of Irian 10 days ago to put down an uprising by Dani tribesmen in which six policemen were killed.
.. .. ..
1977 June 1
'Appeasement' on border attacked
From JOHN WAUGH staff Correspondent
DARU, Tuesday. - The PNG Government was attacked today for its efforts to appease the Indonesian Government over recent border incidents.
The accusation was made by the Deputy Leader of the Opposition, Nr Paul Langro, in a statement.
.. .. ..
1977 June 4
7 Irianese killed by soldiers
By an AAP-Reuter Correspondent in the Baliem Valley
BAKAUDINI, Irian Jaya, Friday. - Seven Irianese lay dead here last night with blood still oozing from their bodies while two Indonesian soldiers inspected them briefly.
The seven men in civilian clothes had been killed about 10 minutes earlier in a mopping up operation by Indonesian troops in the Baliem Valley, against supporters and members of the outlawed Free Papua Movement (OPM) which wants to set up this formerly Dutch colony of West New Guinea as an independent State.
"They are OPM men," said one of the soldiers as he left the seven corpses in the bush.
He said two of his comrades had been killed when Dani tribesmen, led by OPM agents, ambushed a military unit last Friday. Their bodies had been flown to Bandung, Java, where their families live.
"The OPM are now being taught a good lesson," the soldier said over the cracking of sub-machinegun fire.
.. .. .. PAGE 2: Reprisals feared, says UN man.
"All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing."
- Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
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