Myth: West Papua was invaded
There was no successful invasion of West Papua.
But from 1950 to 1962 Indonesia sent several incursions,
just as they have been doing to PNG for the pass forty years.
Some Papuan people did see Indonesian troops with guns in Papua but
for over a decade every Indonesian got arrested and sent back.
The greatest military victory was a small village near Sorong
was held by some PGT commandos in late May 1962.
General Suharto and Indonesian military pride depend on the fiction that
they won a military victory,
but the truth is that the victory was by friends of Freeport Sulphur
corporation manipulating John F Kennedy in Washingtion..
The incursions are listed below.
Only since the New York Agreement has there been widespread
murder and slaughter.
Myth: The Soviet Union was backing an Indonesian invasion
The Soviet Union had no interest in West Papua, they did not know about the
mineral wealth which the American businessmen knew about.
Washington had been funding the Indonesian military since 1949,
in 1957 General Nasution ask Washington for $650m, Washington refused,
so he ask Moscow for $250m. In 1958 Washington resume funding the
Yes there were Soviet as well as US arms in Indonesia,
but Sukarno didn't care which white people gave him money.
Moscow like Washington wanted ideological influence.
But Sukarno and the Freeport corporation wanted the Papuan gold and copper,
the Cold War and now the War on Terrorism have been used as reasons to deny
media coverage of the colonial abuse of West Papua.
The Cold-War was used as a cover story for the United States to force
the Netherlands to sell West Papua to Indonesian as a colony.
Myth: Netherlands could not hold West Papua if it was invaded
Every Indonesian incursion had been captured and held by the local Papuan
people while they sent somebody to tell the Dutch that there were foreigners
with guns to be evicted and sent back to Java.
Indonesia did not have a professional army or means to deliver a force able
to capture and hold cities or regions of this Pacific territory, see the
below list of sad incursions.
Myth: The Indonesian people had always wanted West Papua
During the 1920s Sukarno dreamed of ruling the Majapahit empire and he
wanted to call his version "Indonesia", when Japan invaded Sukarno was
the only Javanese figure willing to aid the Axis war.
In March 1945 Tokyo sent orders that Sukarno was to prepare for
claiming the region as 'Indonesia',
some three months later it was suggested that Indonesia would
greatly increase its farming territory if it could claim West New Guinea.
The only reason the Generals told the Javanese public that Papua wanted
to be part of Indonesia was because the Generals wanted to grab the land.
This is a listing from US and Australian publications of known
Indonesian military operations against the people and nation of West Papua.
Although the Indonesian attacks 1950-1962 may appear inept and amature
productions by mordern standards of insurgency and warfare;
the intent to remove the West New Guinea Council government and the disregard
of Papua's human rights can not be denied.
During previous centuries there had been repeated Asian piracy efforts to
kidnap Papuan people as slaves;
during the WW-II Japanese invasion too many Papuan people had suffered at
the hands of an enemy working with Sukarno and his Javanese militia.
As the only pre-1950 West Papuan experience of Java was and continues to
consist of Asian piracy, and as an Axis power and oil supplier;
it is difficult to understand why Indonesia believed the US and other
populations would view its demands for Western New Guinea as anything
other than a neo-colonial land grab.
U.S. and Australian policy makers should also consider the traditional
fashion by which the Javanaese military elite have manipulated the
United States and others into supplying equipment, military Aid,
and political endorsement.
6 men landed at Sansapor on the north coast, they were quickly arrested
- Jan 1952
- Landing by boat on West New Guinea's Gag Island,
the New York Times reports Dutch saying 43 men were arrested by local police
though other references say 28 men;
the Indonesian men are quickly spotted and arrested.
- May 1953
17 Indonesians the Dutch claim were soldiers from a Celebes (Sulawesi)
detachment with a Papuan guide land near Fakfak;
intercepted by Dutch marines, the leading sergeant and two others were shot
before others were arrested and sentenced to one to six year in prison
- Oct 1953
21 armed men of the 25th Indonesian Infantry Regiment trained in guerrilla
warfare and another 21 locals recruited from Aru Island entered Etna Bay
flying a Dutch flag and proceeded inland.
Intercepted by marines, four were shot, five killed by Papuan natives, and
twenty eight arrested during first two months. Eventualy eleven died and the
others were sentenced to four years before being returned to Indonesia
- 9 Nov 1960
- After ten men desert the Pasukan Gerilya 100 unit lands along the
southern coast with 23 insurgents; after local Papuans report
seeing armed intruders 16 were captured and 7 were shot during the next four months.
- 14 Sep 1961
- Pasukan Gerilya 200 unit lands 32 insurgents with morta,
grenades and Lee Enfield rifles near Sorong;
quickly spotted by local Papuans 29 were captured, 2 shot,
and one believe eaten by crocodiles during three months attempting to evade capture.
- 15 Jan 1962
- Pasukan Gerilya 300 leaves Jakarta with approx. 115 insurgents
on four Jaguar class torpedo boats,
three boats reached the Aru Sea where two Dutch destroyers pursued them and
sunk the lead boat with Commodore Yos Sudarso.
51 survivors were picked up,
detained until March and with UN aid
(*) repatiated to Java when they
commenced training for PG-400 insurgency in May/1962.
On 2nd Jan 1962 Indonesia ordered the creation of the Mandala Command
headed by Brig. General Suharto to control operations against West Papua.
Although intending to continue the military effort into 1963 with
Operasi Jaya Wijaya, this proved unneccessary once the
group at the Whitehouse"
convinced the US President to coerce the Netherlands to sign the
"New York Agreement".
The Mandala Command decided to continue Pasukan Gerilya 300 infiltation efforts.
- Mar 1962
- A Pasukan Gerilya 300 unit using motorised canoes take cover on Gag Island
after been seen; they were soon captured.
- Mar 1962
- A Pasukan Gerilya 300 unit using motorised canoes take cover near
Waigeo Island before one was eaten by sharks while trying to
return to Java before being captured.
- 26 Apr 1962
- 40 guerrilla paratroopers of DPC Team 3 flew by Dakotas towards Fak-Fak;
the first guerrilla was arrested after asking a Papuan on a canoe for help
and who was delivered instead to the Police.
Three months later the last insurgent was arrested.
- 26 Apr 1962
- 32 guerrilla paratroopers of DPC Team 4 flew by Dakotas towards Kaimana;
evaded capture for almost three months but whose commander Lieut. Heru Sisnodo's diary was also captured,
translated in part sayinng:
"I am disillusioned because I did not select these [PGT] that face this
tough operation and I cry because the Papuans do not support us.
They do not give us food:
we must look for our own food or barter with our valuable equipment.
They report our movements to the Dutch."
- 15-25 May 1962
- PGT commandos and army paratroopers jump near Fak-Fak; 20 Police rangers
approach coastline with speedboats; PGT and army paratroopers jump near Kaimana;
and PGT commandos jump near Sorong while Pasukan Gerilya 400 made a sea landing.
The Police rangers were arrested on route to the beach, some PGT commandos
held a small village shortly near Sorong while the rest of the parachutists
were quickly captured or fleeing capture.
Kopassus as the most infamous and feared Indonesian forces,
deserves special mention.
Although a military Special Forces unit, the primary selection criteria
is closer to the old Soviet Political Officer criteria,
a dedication to the State which over-rides other considerations.
With a single minded duty to maintain or enforce unity of the State,
the Kopassus units have an unequal record in quelling civil movements
and populations suspected of supporting independence interests.
Kopassus remains one of Indonesia's trump cards for retaining the
twenty seven Provinces outside of Java.
|KOPASSUS / Special Forces names since 1950
|Kesatuan Komando Territorium 111|| || |
|Korps Komando AD||1953||KKAD|
|Resimen Pasukan Komando AD||1954||RPKAD|
|Resimen Para Komando AD||1959||RPKAD|
|Pusat Pasukan Khusus AD||1960||PUSPASSUS AD|
|Korps Pasukan Sandhi Yudha||1971||KOPASANDHA|
These incidents and others like them are the reason West Papua is the
scene of an on-going genocide as explained in studies such as
"Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua:
Application of Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control",
a paper prepared for the
Indonesian Human Rights Network
by the Allard K Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, Yale Law School.
- 1966: Rev. Koibut stripped naked and forced to simulate masturbation in front of his family
- 1966-67: Aerial bombing of Arfak Mountain homelands
- Jan-Mar 1967: Aerial bombing of Ayamaru and Teminabuan homelands
- 1967: Mr Permenas Frits Awom, laid down his arms during amnesty, put on boat for 6hr trip from Manokwari to Biak, boat returned 2 hours later without Permenas.
- 1967: Operasi Tumpas (operation obliteration). 1,500 killed in Ayamaru, Teminabuan and Inanuatan villages.
- 1967-1968: Mr Godfried Mirino, member of New Guinea Council taken from his home by unknown persons, never seen since
- Apr 1969: Aerial bombing of Wissel Lake District (Paniai and Enarotali area); 14,000 survivors escape into the jungle.
- May 1969: Mr Penehas Torey, member of New Guinea Council taken by military from his home in Jayapura was never seen again. Moses Werror (now in exile) was last person to have seen him.
- Secret War 'SLAUGHTER' in W. Irian 1969
June 2 - New Zealand newspaper - Reuter
The Indonesian Army has slaughtered thousands of primitive tribesmen in an
unreported war in West Irian,
according to the British Sunday newspaper the Observer. . . .
- May 1970: Massacre of many women and children by Indonesian troops. Eighty witnesses reported seeing one woman gutted, her unborn baby removed & dissected on ground, the baby's aunt was then pack-raped.
- Jun 1971: Mr Henk de Mari reported that 55 men from two villages in North Biak were forced to dig their own graves before being shot. Published in Dutch daily De Telegraaf Oct 1974.
- Unknown: 500 Papuan corpses found in jungle Lereh District, south west of Sentani Airport, Jayapura region.
- 1974: In North Biak, 45 Papuans killed, names and ages known.
- 1975: In Biak, at least 41 people from Arwam and Rumbin villages were killed.
- 1977: Aerial bombing of Akimuga (Freeport McMoRan Inc. mine area).
- 1977-78: Rev. Father Tettoroo (Dutch catholic) forced by ABRI to eat human penis and cut off an OPM fighter shot dead in Paniai Wissel Lake District
- 1977-78: Aerial bombing of Baliem Valley.
- Mar 1978: Four women from Piramid village as sex slaves for one month before dry battery acid stuffed into vaginas and returned to village. Performed by ABRI Unit 752, 753 and Police under command of Colonel Albert Dieng.
- Apr 1978: Six unidentifiable bodies were discovered in the Dosai district of Jayapura.
- May 1978: Five OPM (Organisasi Papua Merdeka) leaders surrender to save the village they were caught in. They are beaten to death with red hot iron bars and their bodies thrown into a pit latrine. The 125 villagers were then machine gunned as suspected OPM sympathizers.
- Jun 1978: 14 corpses found shot, West of Sentani Airport, Jayapura region.
- Jun 1978: 6 women pack-raped, shot, and then had their vaginas stuffed with sweet potato leaves and red berries after death following suspicion of collaboration with OPM. Babuma Village, Kelila District, Jayawijaya.
- Jul 1978: 122 people (116 mean, six women) fled into jungle with ABRI (Indonesian "red beret" military) in pursuit. The villagers were captured, had their hands and feet bound, were weighted and bagged, then dumped at sea. Merauke area.
- Sep 1979: Mr Izack Samuel Fatahan, Musician and businessman who had attempted asylum in PNG to join his family, went hunting with a Captain Coreles, Mr Fatahan never returned.
- Unknown: North Biak, 12 people shot after receiving permission to leave camp to collect sago for a village feast.
- 1981: 10 killed, 58 disappear without trace. Paniai Region.
- Jun-Aug 1981: Operasi Sapuh bersih (Operation Clean Sweep), populations of Ampas-Waris and Batte-Arso villages bayoneted and left.
- Sep-Dec 1981: estimated 13,000 killed in the central highlands.
- Jul 1984: Naval, air, and ground troop assult of Nagasawa/Ormo Kecil village, 200 dead.
- Unknown: Naval shelling of Taronta, Takar, and Masi-Masi coastal villages; suvivors fled towards Jayapura; under Dutch in 1950 each village had 1500 to 2000 population.
- mid 1985: 2,500 killed in Paniai area of Wissel Lake district, including 115 from Iwandoga and Kugapa villages massacred by troops 24/6/1985; 10 people, the village, food gardens, and livestock of Epomani village, Obano Sub-district; 15 people, village, and livestock of Ikopo village Monemane district; and 517 people, 12 villages, food gardens, and live-stock of Monemane.
- 1986-87: 34 known persons shot, Paniai/Wissel Lake District.
- Dec 1994: Christmas day, civilian Mr Nogogamakme Mem (31) shot in the back while hiding near church, he feared the soldiers guarding the entrance
- Dec 1994: civilian Mr Wendi Tabuni (23) stabbed in abdomen and shot in head; body dumped in river gorge on the Tembagapura.
- Jul 1998: Troops shoot 150 sleeping under West Papuan flag for four hours before hauling other residents from homes for torture and rape before dumping bodies at sea by naval gunships. Initial reports,Later details
- 2000 Prison, Torture and Murder in Jayapura for illegal journalism
- Nov 2001: Papua Praesidium Council Chairman, Chief Theys Eluay is kidnapped and murdered. New reports
- Oct 2002: tour guide abducted by Kopassus (Indonesian Special Forces) at Sentani (Jayapura's airport), kept in small room at Kopassus HQ and fed only salt water for 14 days while tortured. With deep, barely healed bayonet scars cross his back where he was sliced, he says his interrogators accused him of having links with the Free Papua Movement, OPM. That as they were doing this, they said, "You cannot get independence. During 2003, 2004 we will kill all Papuan leaders for independence." From Sydney Newspaper Mar 2003
- Mar 2003: Thom Beanal successor to Theys Eluay, says, "We are getting used to the intimidation now. We get SMS (phone messages) all the time saying that we will be killed."Newspaper
- May 2003: up to 10 highland villages were burned and at least 20 people were killed by Jemaah Islamiah or Laskar Jihad groups. News, talk.