West Papua is the western half of New Guinea, like Tasmania it was separated from the Australian mainland around 5,000BC. But over 40,000 years ago Australia was settled by people of dark skin and fuzzy hair; the indigenous people of Papua are Melanesian (black islanders of Pacific), farmers and traders who long ago developed hundreds of languages and joyfull cultures which had been stable and satisfied the people's needs for thousands of years.
|West Papua's human history||Colonization history|
|40,000BC The ancestors of indigenous Australians and other Melanesian people settle in Australia and New Guinea|
|1848 Netherlands claims Western half of Papua. No exploration is done but in 1860s peaceful Dutch Missionaries arrive and teach western sciences to Papuans who tell others across West New Guinea.|
1895 Europeans agree on dividing the unexplored island,
Netherlands claimed West New Guinea, Germany claimed North Eastern New Guinea,
and Britain claimed South Eastern Papua.
Germany sends a ship to establish a trading post, then the Netherlands announces it will build a Capital city called Hollandia next to the German border.
|1930s Papuan graduates from Teachers College start talking to the 800 tribal nations speaking 300 languages to promote the idea that they should create a single unified West Papuan identity and government to protect their cultural assets.|
|1935 Standard Oil companies (Mobil/Chevron) buy 60% of Dutch (NNGPM) company through which it sends geologist in search of mineral wealth.|
1936 Dozy discovers world's richest gold and copper deposits
in sacred homeland mountains of the Amungme people and names
it "Ertsberg" (Mountain of Ore;
Standard Oil keeps Ertsberg secret from government.
1949 In New York & Washington two members of Javanese elite offer colonial ease of access to "wealth of Asia" to Ford Foundation and Standard Oil executives if a Javanese central government is in control of the 'East Indies'.
1949 December - United Nations and world recognise United States of Indonesia federation of 16 equal States.
1950 - Sukarno and his Republic of Indonesia military in Java force the 15 other Island nations into his Republic and in July he declares himself President of Indonesia; the United Nations remains silent about this Republic take-over of the federation.
1950s Netherlands works with West Papuans to establish modern social
services towards independence under United Nations guidelines,
Papuans begin to replace Dutch technicans and officials.
1957 Australia & Netherlands make this Joint Statement to promote "the interests and inalienable rights of the inhabitants" under the United Nations Charter.
West New Guinea continues with election of local representatives and developing technical skills.
March 1959 New York Times newspaper
publish this article
that the Dutch are searching for the source of the alluvial gold.
John Rockefeller has his Freeport Sulphur company arrange to lodge a claim telling the Dutch that there is only copper in the Amungme people's mountain. (see claim on p.45 of 1961 Report to UN)
Freeport employs Bechtel Inc. to design world's biggest gold and copper mine.
1960 UN Sec. General Dag Hammarskjold tells New York Economic Club
that he is in favor of West New Guinea's independence, and that in his
view neither the Netherlands nor Indonesia had any rights to this
July/1960 the electoral roll was finalised,
10/Aug/1960 the Papuan National Party first public meeting,
21/Aug/1960 the Papuan Democratic Party first public meeting
1961 West New Guinea elects national Parliament which takes office in April 1961 and selects new title of "West Papua" for nation, new "Morning Star" flag, and anthem (see Netherlands 1961 report to UN).
9-10/Jan/1961 - 15 electoral districts voted - direct elections were held in Manokwari and Hollandia (there were 12 polling stations in Hollandia),
1/Apr/1961 the 28 members of the New Guinea Council were sworn in by Governor Dr. P.J.Platteel (16 elected, 12 appointed; 23 Papuan mostly from teaching and administration professions),
5/Apr/1961 the New Guinea Council was inaugrated - officials from Australia, Britain, France, Holland, and New Zealand attend - Mr Hasluck MP heading a large Australian delegation (inc. Sir Alistair McMullan - President of Australian Senate), officials from each of the South Pacific Commission, Cardinal Cremers, etc.
- Councilor Nicolas Jouwe criticised America for snubing the invitation ,
|Sept 1961 Dag Hammarskjold killed in plane crash|
19/Oct/1961 Papuan Councilors have six hour meeting after reports that the Hague is considering submitting to
US pressure to trade the territory to United Nations administration, Councilors elect a national Committee
and draw up a Manifesto for Independence & Self-government,
they also selected a National flag (Morning Star) and anthem ("Haitanahkoe Papue" / Hail to our Soil Papua)
30/Oct/1961 New Guinea Council unanimously support Manifesto, renaming territory as "West Papua", Morning Star flag, anthem, and Coat of Arms also designed by Natonal Committee.
31/Oct/1961 Morning Star flag presented to Governor Platteel who says "Never before has the oneness of the Council been put forward so strongly."
1961 December 1st, West Papua raises Morning Star flag next to the Dutch as reported in this newspaper report.
1/Dec/1961 day of celebrations Governor Platteel starts with inspection of Papuan Guard of Honour before taking his place among dignitaries as Papuan girls choir sings the Dutch and then Papuan anthems, New Guinea Council First Deputy Chairman Mr Kaisiepe handed the Morning Star flag to a Pauan Police officer who hoisted it.
- National Committee Chariman Mr Inury said: "My Dear compatriots, you are looking at the symbol of our unity and our desire to take our place among the nations of the world. As long as we are not really united we shall not be free. To be united means to work hard for the good of our country, now, until the day that we shall be independent, and further from that day on."
2/Dec/1961 Indonesia creates Mandala Command headed by Brig. General Suharto
to implement military attacks instead of insurgency infilterations.
1962 January, after failed naval attack West Papua requests UN to return 52 Indonesian sailors to Java.
1962 inside U.S. Whitehouse McGeorge Bundy, Robert Komer, and Walt Rostow work to convince President Kennedy that he must violate international conventions by writing a contract to transfer West Papua's administration to Indonesia.
1962 - United States government decides to force Netherlands to sign the New York Agreement transferring West Papua to Indonesia without Papuan consent.
1962 Robert Kennedy secretly negotiates transfer of West Papua to Indonesia without Papuan permission at United Nations in New York, the three way contract is now commonly known as the New York Argeement. Although Indonesia by signing this contract agreed to allow all men and women to vote in an act of self-determination, it has never done so.
1/Oct/1962 United Nations becomes a colonial power owning the people of
West New Guinea, creating the UNTEA to rule the territory and denying the people
permission to protest the colonization of their lands by the
United Nations and Republic of Indonesia.
1/May/1962 UN uses its option under the New York Agreement to transfer the people and lands of West New Guinea to Indonesian control.
|1965 West Papuan people horrified by brutal abuse by Indonesian military and the disappearance of many leaders, create OPM (Organisation Papua Freedom) movement to corrdinate their political efforts to regain independence and freedom from Indonesia.|
Indonesia declares OPM organisation guilty of treason and all supporters as rebels.
1967 Indonesia sell 30 year mining license of West Papua to Freeport
1969 Indonesian General Sarwo implements 'Act of Free Choice' by selecting 1025 men who are told they and their villages will be killed unless they vote against independence.
1969 UN representative Bolivia Ambassador Ortiz-Sanz says "the world has a moral responsibility to the Irianese [West Papuan] people"
"It is the duty of the United Nations, the industrialized countries and everybody else to consider with seriousness, generosity and urgency that something MUST be done to give the wonderful Irianese [West Papuan] people at least the essential benefits of our so-called civilized world. It is a shame for all of us that these people have been forgotten."
1969, The United Nations in Resolution 2504 evades giving its opinion about whether Indonesia complied with Resolution 1541 or the New York Agreement by instead stating that Indonesia and the Netherlands 'recognized' the results.
However, it ignored the West Papuan cries for justice, self-determination rights, and an end to Indonesian abuses while the US company destroyed their homelands and robbed them of their national resources.