West Papua Information Kit

1961 Report to United Nations under UN Charter Aricle 73e
Copies and partial transcript of the 1961 Report to the United Nations.
A major function of the United Nations is to end colonization. Article 73e of the United Nations Charter requires UN members to submit regular reports on their colonies to confirm the colonies' swift progress towards independence or "Self-Determination" without delay.

This document provides good information about West Papua just before US, according to the US DoS, imposed on the Netherlands for the people of West Papua to be traded to Indonesia in exchange for better relations with Jakarta for Washingon. On this page you will find sections of the 1961 text covering: History, the government, the New Guinea Council, Mining, Human Rights, Labour policy, workforce statistics and trade unions, Social Welfare, Penal system and crime, Public Health and Papuan health workers and Community Development. An overview regarding the health service situation which has replaced the Dutch era health programs is in the Health and HIV/AIDS section.

Scaned images of the Netherlands report to the United Nations, as PDF files:
main 1961 report,
1961 appendix, and
1961 Photo appendix
The below text is transcribed from the above PDFs.

1961 Report to United Nations under UN Charter Article 73e


Presented to the Secretary General of the United Nations
pursuant to Article 73(e) of the Charter
.. .. ..
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Natural grass plains do not occur, with a few exceptions, of which the savannah area near Merauke is the principle one.


The fauna of New Guinea closely resembles that of the Australian continent. For instance, there are all kinds of marsupials, such as kangaroo, the opossum and the phalanger.

The savannahs near Merauke are rich in game, i.e. deer, kangaroos and birds; the Central Highlands, on the other hand, are poor in game. Hunting is universally prsctised by the population and, depending on the region, contributes more or less to the menu.

The bird-world is characterized by the occurance of the bird of paradise, of which more than eighty species are known. Also to be found are the cassowary, some forty different different species of parrots and the crowned pigeon.

The waters around Netherlands New Guinea are rich in fish, including tunny, and shells which can be used for industrial purposes (troca shells).

In general the inland waters are rather poor in fish. Many crocodiles are to to be found in the rivers. The export of crocodile skins provides a not inconsiderable money income for the population. An item worthy of mention is the occurance of the sawfish in Lake Sentani, whilst in Lake Jamoer the fresh-water shark is encountered.


Petroleum is the most important useful mineral, and Territory's most important export product. However, production is declining.

In the Cycloop Mountains and on the island of Waigeo and a numbers of other islands of the Radja Ampat group nickel- and cobalt-bearing ore scrata have been encountered.

Further investigations have shown that the nickel ore reserve and the average nickel content of the ore strata render economic exploitation possible.

Further, the ground contains various other valunable minerals, including gold, silver, copper, zinc and lead. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that these minerals occur in quantities allowing of economic exploitation.


Prior to the year 1900 practically nothing was known about the prehistory of Netherlands New Guinea. Only in the last decades has some idea been obtained of the ancient history of the country. Recent archaelogical investigations, finds of bronze axes, discoveries of rock drawings and of remains of old fortifications have given indications of migrations in former times. However, we are very far from being able to obtain a well-rounded comprehensive picture of the prehistoric era.

From the begining of the sixteenth century representatives of Western European countries often had contact with the country, but they found it as it remained until modern means came to the aid: barren, inaccessible, producing nothing for the markets outside the island.

Two Portuguese, Antonio d'Abreu and Francesco Serrano, are believed to have been the first to sight the coasts, without going ashore. Don Jorge de Menezes, who sailed in 1526-1527 from the Malyan Peninsula to the Spice Islands, drifted of course and was the first to set foot on the soil of New Guinea. The name Papua was already known then.

In 1545 the Spainard Ynigo Ortiz de Retez sailed along the north coast. He gave the island the name "Nueva Guinea" because of the similarity between the inhabitants and the negroes of Guinea, on the west coast of Africa.

Various explorers, whose names live on in this part of the world in some geographical name or the other, called at the island. Luiz Vaez de Torres in 1606, William Dampier in 1700, Captain Cook - who recorded the fact that he was received by the inhabitants in a particularly unfriendly fashion - in 1770, Shortland in 1788, and Hunter and MacCluer in 1791, on the occasion MacCluer charted part of the west coast.

The United East India Company was never immediately interested in New Guinea. It was only concerned that the island should not be used as a base for British or Spanish penetration, a danger to which its position - so close to the valuable Spice Islands - might give rise.

However, when in 1826 rumours went the rounds about a possible British settlement on the south coast, the State of the Netherlands proceeded officially to take possession of the island by

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proclamation in 1828. For the first time the 242st degree of longitude was now stated as furthest frontier in the south and in the north the Cape of Good Hope.

This proclamation was the begining of an attempt to establish in fact Dutch rule over New Guinea, an attempt which was doomed to failure, since in those days man was still powerless against the tropical diseases raging on the island, the causes of which were not understood. In 1836 the high mortality rate made it necessary to abandon the settlement established in 1828 at Merusoord (on Triton Bay). From then on attempts at administration were confined for many years to keeping the peace on the seas around and on the fringes of the island.

In 1835 the Protestant Mission established itself in New Guinea for the first time on the island of Mansinam, opposite Manokwari.

On the eastern half of the island increasing activity on the part of Europeans began to be noticeable, particularly after 1860. And yet, partly owing to the inhospitable nature of the country, it was not until 1883 and 1884 that the island came under German and British rule.

This led to the decision to establish actual Dutch administration. This came into being in 1898, at Merauke on the south coast, whilst the first Catholic Mission station was founded there in 1905. From then on administration was regularly extended.

In general it may be said that an effective exercise of administration did not become possible until after the beginning of this century, when progress in the medical and technical fields made it possible to cope with malaria and other common tropical diseases, and to tackle successfully the inaccessible terrain.

Besides the work of numerous scientific expeditions, separate reference should be made to the work of military exploration, which lasted from 1907 to 1915. As a result of this, the knowledge of the country and its people was greatly extended in a short time and a basis was laid for further investigations.

During the war the greater part of the Territory was occupied by the Japanese; only part of the south remained free. In 1944, after the advance of the American armies, heaquarters were established at Hollandia, and this circumstance led to Hollandia being the centre of Netherlands administration.

In July 1946 the area again became administratively a separate residency, after which the instrution of the Government of Netherlands New Guinea took place on December 27th 1949.

In the years which have elapses since then, the development of the country and its people has been systematically dealt with. This has been made possible by a substancial annual financial contribution from the Netherlands Government.

Scientific research has been carried out so as to obtain an idea of the possibilities in the fields of agriculture, forestry, stock-breeding, fishing and mining.

Basic facilities required for economic and administrative developement have been created or improved. For instances, airfield and port accommodation has been considerably improved, the result being better communications and greater possibilities of transport, and a great many houses, offices, hospitals and schools have been built.

The cultivation of new crops, both food and commercial crops, has been introduced, and new methods of tilling the soil have found acceptance.

Education has been considerably extended and improved, not only general, but also technical and vocational education.

The missionary societies have extended their activities. An independent Protestant Church, the Evangelical Church in Netherlands New Guinea, was contituted.

Health care has been considerably extended, not only in the field of curative health care, but also and in particular in the feld of preventative medicine. With the aid of and in collaboration with the WHO and UNICEF, important results have been pained in this latter field, in particular by the mass campaigns against yaws, malaria and tuberculosis.

Administration has been extended and intensified, for instance by the introduction of six administrative divisions and the creation of a number of new subdivisions, coupled with the founding of a large number of new administrative posts.

This policy has always been to bring the Papuan population themselves, both men and women, into this development, not only at an official level, but also by the institution of representative bodies in which they can promote their own interests.

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On 5 April, 1961, a central representative body, the New Guinea Council, was set up. This body has 28 members, of which 23 are Papuans, including one woman. Irs creation gives the population, through their representatives, a say in the legislation and the administration of the country and in deciding on the policy with regard to further development which is intended to lead to self-government and self-determination.


The population consists almost exclusively of Papuans. Their classification still confronts physical anthropology with many puzzles. However, during the year under review our knowledge has increased considerably, thanks to the study made by a physical anthropologist, who was a members of the expedition to the Sterren mountain range organized by the Royal Netherlands Geographical Society. He made numerous measurements on more than 1000 people living in the area between coast and the central watershed in the Sterren mountains, and also around Lake Sentani.

It is very improbable that the Papuans form a separate race. Instead they are probably a variant of the subrace of the Eastern or Melanesian negroids. However, this term is misleading, since this ethnic type has very little in common with the African Negro as regards its physical characteristics. This is definately so in the case of the Papuan. In fact, he often displays striking similarities to representatives of the Caucasian race, which includes the West Europeans.

There are further indications that the Papuan is anthropologically related to two of the oldest known ethnic types, the Australoids and the Veddoids.

A remarkable and as yet unexplained fact is that as one proceeds further inland from the coast the physical height of the Papuans gradulally decreases until in many - but not all - regions of the Central Highlands a height of approx. 1.60 mm is encounted, which has been taken as one of the charactistics of pygmies. However, the gradual decline in height, together with the resemblance to the coastal population, in other physical charactistics, are factors not in agreement with the notion of a distinct pygnois type in the Central Highlands.

Along the north and north-west coast Papuans have probably interbred with people belonging to another variant of the Melanesian negroids which occurs particularly in the eastern part of the island of New Guinea, and which is known by the name Melanesian. In this mixture the Papuan element predominates.

The linguistic situation is also complicated, and runs more or less parallel with the anthropological one. The majority of the some 200 languages which may be distinguished are summarized under the collective name of Papuan languages. This designation has more of a negative than a positive meaning, viz, that none of these languages listed under one common name belong to the great Austronesian or Malay-Polynesian family of languages.

However, it is not yet certain how far the Papuan languages are interrelated and share characteristics, at least not at the present stage of the investigations, that is being performed by a Government linguist and a large number of Catholic and Protestant Mission linguists. Languages forming part of the Austronesian family of languages are encountered solely as small enclaves along the north coast, in the Geelvink Bay area and on the mainland and the islands off the west coast.

A striking feature of all the groups of languages is the large number of them spoken by only a small number of people. Only a handful of the languages are spoken by more than a few thousand persons, and most of them have only a couple of hundred or even a few score of speakers.

Examples of languages spoken by more than a few thousand are found in the Central Highlands, the Sentani area and the Nimboran area in the north, in Biak, West, Central and South Japen, on the Waropen coast and in the Wandammen region in the area of Geelvink Bay, in the Ajamaroe region in the Vogelkop and in the south in the Asmat, Mappi and Moejoe areas, and also in the Marind region.

The occurance of numerous small linguistic areas may be partly explained by the isolation in which some groups of the population live or have lived, but on the other hand reflects the differentiating effect of interbreeding and contact between speakers of different languages.

The total of the Papuan population in the area under administration at the end of 1961 was about 487,800. About 61,000 Papuans were under administrative influence, whilst in the

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unadminstrated area the number was estimated at about 169,000. The Papuans in the area brought under administration has risen in the last five years from 359,600 (1957) to 487,800 (1961), an increase of 128,000.

The number of Asians is about 16,600; the European section of the population numbers some 15,500.

A survey of population figures is given in Appendix IV, a-g.

In the Sentani district (about 10,000 inhabitants) a pilot project was started in 1958 for the purpose of investigating to what extent it would prove possible in the more developed areas of Netherlands New Guinea to keep elementary vital statistics from which data on the numbers and trend of the popluation could be drawn. The results of the registration years 1959 and 1960 showed tha only 5% of the births and deaths had not been included in the vital statistics, which are kept in the villages by the village heads, and by 1961 this percentage had dropped to below 3. These results justify the conclusion that this pilot project may be regarded as a success.

A scientifically sound demographic picture of the whole Territory cannot be given. In view of this a socio-demographic structure survey of the population has been instituted, in order to have a full picture of the present-day demographic structure of the Papuan community, and also of the socio- biological ties in native society. This project which, spread over a perios of five years, will cost the sum of f. 2 1/2 million, is being financed by the Development Fund for the countries and territories overseas of the European Economic Community. After extensive preparations, a start was made in September 1959 on the Schouten Islands with this survey, which was continued in 1960 and complected in the course of 1961.

The results of this survey have been used for setting up permanent facilities for the registration of vital statistics. This registration has been entrusted to the chairmen of the local administrative committees.

In 1961 a socio-demographic structure survey was instituted in Lower Waropen and in Nimboran. The survey in Lower Waropen has now been completed and is to be followed by the introduction of permanent registration of vital statistics.

The survey in the Nimoran area will be continued in 1962.

It is further intended, also in 1962, to institute an investigation in a number of areas in West and South New Guinea.


The natural surroundings in which the Papuan lives offer him few possibilities. The technical means at his disposal are from of old extremely simple and few in number.

For instance, the Mountain Papuan has nothing else with which to lay out and tend his garden than a dibble and stone implements.

In the extensive swamps of the lowlands the Papuan is obliged to keep on the move all the time in search of his food between the upstream sago and hunting land and the downstream fishing grounds. In the hills and the mountains shifting cultivation, coupled with extesive use of the soil, is the only possibility. And added to this is the fact that the fertility of the soil is mainly dependent on the layer of humus. Methods of soil conservation are barely known, except in the Wissel Lakes area and in the Baliem Valley. The poor accessibility of many regions and the highly dissected nature of the hilly and mountainous areas are other unfavourable factors.

Adaption to these conditions requires the population to live in a very scattered fashion and so to spread themselves over a large number of sometimes extremely small settlements.

The following table, compiled from demographic data of 1957, shows that the small local group with a maximum of 300 inhabitants is the most common one. Within this category the number of settlements with less than 100 inhabitants even predominates: 55% of the number of villages have less than 100 inhabitants. In this latter group the average number of persons per village is 58.

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  Number of villages, with inhabitants
Geelvink Bay20524324632483
West New Guinea51721326143788
South New Guinea131208411632401

This table does not take into account the Capital Highlands, the regions not yet under effect- ive administration and the urban centres.

It is the small local group that leaves its mark on society and culture, even to the extent that at places where larger groups are possible, smaller ones are still preferred. The predominance of the small local group in society has led to great stress being placed on the importance and the function of the family. In the whole Territory the tight bonds and the close cooperation between members of a family, even after marriage, are particularlt striking.

In a wider connection this has the consequence that both the relationship with relatives of the father and mother, and the relationship with the progeny of brothers and sisters, are of great functional importance. The larger groups, extending over a wider area, such as clans and regional political federations, are scarce. Closely connected with this is the fact that regional political ties and regional leaders are rare in the Territory as a whole. However, this does not detract from the fact that in certain regions, especially in the mountainous areas, regional leaders are not infrequently of very great importance, because of their personal qualities, their wealth, their following of relatives, their knowledge of social standards and customs and of personal relationships. Within the small group, where everyone knows everyone else, and where rank and class are absent for the greater part, there is little need for formal authority and formal dispensation of justice. However, it would be wrong to conclude that traditional authority is absent there. It is certainly present, but it is not clearly defined and hardly tangible.

The Papuan's attitude towards persons who do not belong to his own small group is one of reserve and distrust. This has led in the past and still leads even today to insinuations, arguments, feuds and bloodshed, even among members of one and the same group of relatives who belong to different local groups. On the other hand, the very smallness of the Papuan's own community makes him dependent on the outside world, particularly when he is looking for a wife. As a result, relations with other communities are ambivalent; on the one hand, there is a certain measure of intimacy as a result of and with a view to intergroup relations in the field of barter, family alliance and marriage, and on the other hand reserve and distrust in the presence of a stranger.

A final phenomenon connected with the dominant position of the small local group which may be mentioned is that there is a great diversity of culture.

Although certain similarities of culture may be pointed to, it is the differences that strike the observer first.

In this region the most divergent types of social structure are encountered; the manifestations of magic are countless, and the themes of myths and stories, as well as of rituals and ceremonies based on these, are many and varied. New Guinea offers a variegated selection of patterns of culture, and though they show general tendencies and fundamental principles, it is still difficult, at least at the present stage of our knowledge, to give it a convincing general characyeristic.

Nevertheless, the fact that there is a considerable diversity of culture does not mean that there is any great difference in the field of material culture. In this respect all these native civilizations are among the most primitive in the world. In those parts of the interior where contact with modern civilization has not been possible, the stone axe is still in use.

Previously metals were unknown, except in Geelvink Bay and on the coast of West New Guinea; apart from one insignificant exception weaving did not occur in these areas. Consequently clothes

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were hardly worn. Cereals were unknown and in the greater part of this region even the art of pottery did not exist. Food was not cooked but stewed between leaves on stones which had been heated beforehand, a method of cookery still widely used.

Our knowledge of the native religious systems is still imperfect. Systematic studies of the religion of certain sections of the population are rare. It is therefore impossible to give a general characteristic of the Papuan religions. However, one thing that is certain is that the Papuan also tries in his myths and legends to consider the fundamental problems of life confronting him in this world of ours, such as the origin of man and his world, disease, death, shortage of food, war, natural phenomena, marriage, pregnancy and birth.

He too wonders about the meaning of things and tried to base some social rules on supernatural tenets. His myths even state exactly how a certain feast must be celebrated and how sago must be pounded. The origin of the foreigner and of hos world also finds a ready explanatioj in the myths.

In the coastal regions in particular the myths were or still are staged, often in percisely elaborated rites and ceremonies, partly to preserve the present scheme of things.

Extensive masquerades, sacred houses, sacred objects such as flutes and bullroarers have extermely important functions here. The external forms of religious life in the Central Highlands are less spectacular. However, a striking feature of religion there is the ceremonial and religious significance of the pig, which plays an important part alongside shell money in socio-economic transactions.

In the mountains of the Vogelkop ceremonial tissues imported in former times take the central place occupied in the Central Highlands by the pig.

Magic, which must be regarded as an essential component of religion, is everywhere highly developed, and occurs in manifold forms. Very many christianized Papuans still believe in it. Only rarely are natural factors, the existence of which is known at least in part and is being learnt to an increasing extent from western agencies, regarded as the ultimate cause of disease and death. These are believed to be the result of infringment of certain taboos or the inluencing of supernatural forces by persons who may or may not be members of one's own community. Needless to say, these views can very easily create a spirit of distrust, which does not further relations between individuals and groups. Wars, quarrels and homicide often have these suspicions behind them.

A real christianization of the population which extends more deeply than the external forms is rendered difficult by the survival of established views and practices such as those described above. These obstacles to a new way of life ar eall the more awkard now that many other elements ofthe old culture have lost their value, for the population as a result of the confrontation with the western world or are quickly losing their value. The old principles have benn drawn into the maelstrom of rapid change, whilst the new principles are not yet functioning properly.

This applies in practicular to one of the principle mainsprings of modren life; the steady, un-interrupted effort through generation after generation to arrive at a higher standard of living and towards progress. But all too often it is believed that greater prosperity can be obtained for nothing and sometimes literally by a miracle, instead of by unflagging personal effort and by gradual steps. It still repeatedly occurs that efforts are made to bridge the gap between poverty and wealth in radical fashion by persuading one's ancestors, who have the say over wealth and poverty, to employ the horn of plenty over the descendants (the cargo cults).

Finally, saving for investments and the increase of the Papuan's personal standard of living are hamered by the still prevalent demand for a series of gifts and counter-gifts, rapidly increasing in finacial value, to be made in connection with a marriage. There is a discrepancy in the rate of development towards self-determination and that towards economic independence. Moreover, the still very concrete linguistic and tribal barriers form an obstacle to both development processes.

The number of Christian Papuans is now about 300,000. About 10,000 Papuans are Mohammedans. The influence of both religions extends further than thesefigures suggest, however, as is the case with that of contact wit the outsie world in general.


In Appendices V A and B data appear regarding private persons and Governmnet officials entering and leaving the Territory during the year under review.

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Sovereignty over Netherlands New Guinea is vested in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

The Act of 9 June, 1955 (Netherlands Bulletin of Acts, Orders and Decrees No. 247 of 1955), which confirms the form of government for the Territory (the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea), was amended by the Act of 10 November, 1960 (Netherlands Bulletin of Ats, Orders and Decrees No. 454 of 1960).

This amendment partially revised the regulation of administration. The purpose of this revision is to accelerate the political development of Netherlands New Guinea, with due observance of the political aspirations of the population, in accordance with the principles and directed towards the objectives of Chapter XI of the Charter of the United Nations.

Insofar as the residents of Netherlands New Guinea are not aliens, they have the status of Netherlands national or netherlands subject.


I. Central organs

A. The Governor

The general administration of the Netherlands New Guinea, in accordance with the provisions of the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea, and with due observance of the instructions of the Crown, is exercised in the name of the Queen of the Netherlands as Her Majesty's Representative by a Governor appointed by the Crown. He is responsible to the Crown for the exercise of his office.

At the immediate disposal of the Government is the Government Secretarist, which is under the direction of the Government Secretary, aided by the Assistant Government Secretary and a number of graduate officials.

B. The Departments of General Administration

In the exercise of the General administration entrusted to him the Governor is aided by eight Heads of Departments of General Administration. Like the Public Prosecutor and the President and members of the Court of Justice, they are appointed by the Crown.

The eight Departments of General Administration are the following:

I. The Department of Internal Affairs, consisting of the following brances: General Affairs, Administrative Affairs, Democratization and Decentralization, Land Affairs, Police, Prisons, Immigration, Central Security Service, Police and Native Affairs.

The Native Affairs Branch has been entrusted with the organization of registration of the native rural population.

Under this Department also come the Training School for indigenous administrative officers, the Central Training School of the General Police and the courses for administrative prison staff.

II. The Department of Finance, consisting of the General Treasury, under which come the Inspection and Budgetary Affairs Branches, the Financial Administration Branch and the Accountancy Brach; the Revenue Branch under which come the Customs Affairs Brach and the Tax Affairs Brach; the General Personnel Affairs Brach, of which the Travel Office forms part; and finally the following separate branches: the Purchasing Office, Central Provisioning and Government Stores.

The Government concerns also come under the Department of Finance; the "Konijnenburg" shipyard at Manokwari and the State Printing and Publishing House at Hollandia.

III. The Department of Social Affairs and Justice, consisting of the following branches: General Affairs, Justice, Labour Affairs, Social Welfare, Hotels and Lodgings and Provision of Workpeople.
IV. The Department of Public Health, with sections for Malaria Control, Yaws Control, Tuberculosis Control and Leprosy Control, Maternal and Child Welfare, Health Education, and Medical Courses, and also for Hospitals (including Dental Care and Care of the Mentally Deficient), Pharmaceutical Care
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and the Central Medical Laboratory. Under the general administration of the Department come Smallpox Control, Quarantine, Environmental Santitation and Documentation and Statistics.
V. The Department of Cultural Affairs, consisting of the following branches: General Affairs, General Inspectorate and Educational Affairs. Under the first branch come educational legislation, finance, statistics, public worship, arts and sciences and the Broadcasting System.
VI. The Department of Economic Affairs, consisting of the following branches: Agriculture and Stock- Breeding (with sections for Food Production and Agricultural Education, Agricultural Export Production and Plant Quarantine, Agronomic Research, Inland Fisheries and Stock-Breeding), Forestry, Sea Fisheries, Mining and General Economic Affairs.
VII. The Department of Transport and Power, under which come the following branches: the Post Office, the Post Office Savings Bank, Electricity, Shipping, Motor Vehicles Inspection Service, Government Bus Service, Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau and the Air Transport Bureau.
VIII. The Department of Public Works, consisting of the following branches: Buildings and Town Planning, under which come house-building, working-class housing, utilitarian construction, town planning and health engineering; Public Works, under which come matters relating to roads and bridges, airfields, ports and harbours, irrigation and drainage works, heavy equipment, hydrometry and hydro- electric power, and also the Government workshops and the Land Registry and Mapping Branch, which is responsible for civil-engineering surveying, topography, triangulation, astronmical position-finding and Landing Registry inspection, together with the registration and transfer of all immovable property.

C. The Council of Heads of Departments

The Council of Heads of Departments is formed by the eight heads of the Departments of General Administration as ordinary members and the Public Prosecutor attached to the Court of Justice and the Officer Cammanding Naval Forces New Guinea as extraordinary members. The latter is appointed as such by the Crown; the rest are ex officio members.

The Governor may act as Chairman as often as he deems necessary, and in that case has an advisory voice. The Vice-Chairman of the Council is appointed by the Crown from among the members and extraordinary members.

The Government Secretary acts as secretary of the Council.

By virtue of Section 66 of the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea, the Governor consults the Council of Heads of Departments concerning draft ordinances, decrees containing general provisions, draft budgets, matters where this is laid down by general regulations, extraordinary cases of an important nature and other matters concerning which the Governor wishes to know the feelings of the Council. The Council is entitled to advise the Governor of its own accord in cases where it judges this to be advisable in the interests of the Kingdom or of Netherlands New Guinea.

Under Transitional Provision 4 of the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea, ordinances shall, until such time as the New Guinea Council has commenced its activities, be decreed by the Governor with the concurrance of the Council of Heads of Departments, and also the remaining functions entrusted to the New Guinea Council shall be performed by the Council of Heads of Departments.

D. The New Guinea Council

The sixth chapter of the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea, amended by the Act of 10 December, 1960 (Bulletin of Acts, Orders and Decrees No. 454 of 1960), lays down that there shall be a New Guinea Council to represent the inhabitants of Netherlands New Guinea (Section 72), and gives regulations with regard to the composition, institution, task and methods of the Council and of the executive committee which shall be appointed by the Council from among its midst.

In view of the political development pf the population and the fact that part of the Territory has not yet been brought under administration and other parts are not yet intensively administrated, whilst such areas must also qualify for representation on the Council in the future, the number of

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members of the Council has not been definitely fixed, but has been put at no less than 24 and not more than 48 (Section 73). It has further been laid down that the members shall be elected or apponted by the Governor, the number of the members to be elected and those to be appointed being laid down for each session by general administrative order. For the first session the number of members was fixed at 28, 16 elected and 12 appointed.

In the elections a constituency system is applied; however, it is the intention to apply a uniform system of direct elections to the whole country, as soon as circumstances permit. No distinction may be made according to groups of the population, whilst men and women alike possess both the right to vote and the right to sit on the Council.

For the first session the franchise is further regulated by the ordinance of 10 December, 1960 (Government Gazette No. 69 of 1960) and by the Electoral Ordinance, New Guinea Council (Government Gazette No. 71 of 1960). Besides the requirements made by the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea of the right to vote and the right to sit on the Council, the former ordinance adds the principal requirement of three successive years' residence in Netherlands New Guinea prior to the year in which elections are held for the New Guinea Council. Proceeding from the system of constituencies laid down by law, the Electoral Ordinance, New Guinea Council, lays down fourteen constituencies, each covering a region which, as regards development of the population, qualifies to appoint one or two members for the New Guinea Council through free and secret elections.

In the urban centres of Hollandia and Manokwari direct elections have been held, and elsewhere, where this was not yet possible, indirect elections.

In the constituencies with direct elections the vote was 83% of the indigenous electors and 70% of the non-indigenous electors. In the other constituencies the vote for the election of electors varied from 55 to 85%, whilst the electors themselves put in a practically 100% appearance for the election of the member.

In those regions where elections could not yet be held, the Governor appointed members of the population as members of the Council. In four of these regions, in accordance with the ordinance of 10 January, 1961 (Government Gazette N. 2 of 1961), the recommendations of the inhabitants were first sought. For the rest, care is taken in the appointment that they representative nature of the Council finds the clearest possible expression in it's composition.

The Chairman is appointed for each session by the Crown. For this purpose, the Council submits a nomination of three persons (except for the first session).

Of the 28 members of which this first Council now consists, the great majority (23) are Papuans.

The New Guinea Council possesses a number of concrete powers, viz. the right of petition, the right of interpellation, cooperation in the enactment of ordinances with the right to move amendments and the right to propose ordinances (this applies to normal legislation in the whole field of internal affairs of the Territory and also the right of cooperating in the drafting of the budget. Furthermore, the Council is consulted on bills of Dutch laws and on general administrative orders which will also be binding in Netherlands New Guinea.

As the New Guinea Council will not be able to sit continuously, the law provides for the institution of an executive committee which is to be elected by the Council from among its midst and which consistd of seven members for the first session. During the period that the Council is not sitting, the executive committee performs the duties of the Council, with the exception of a few powers which are reserved for the full Council, such as cooperating in the drafting of the budget and the right to propose new ordinances. The Council is moreover empowered to reserve the right to deal in plenary session with certain drafts of statutory regulations and can on the other hand authorise the executive committee to excerise certain powers on behalf of the Council.

The New Guinea Council was officially installed 5 April, 1961. The first session has been fixed at three years, the second one at four years.

During the year under review sixteen ordinances were enacted with the coopertation of the Council or the executive committee. Furthermore, the Council was consulted on a number of subjects, of which the principal one was the draft budget for the year 1962.

E. Advisory bodies

Besides the local advisory councils, which will be dealt with in the following section, the Council for Native Development has operated so far as an advisory body.

This Council had the task of advising - also of its own accord - on subjects of importance to the social and cultural development of the Papuan.

 <<page 12>>

The institution of the New Guinea Council marked the beginning of a period of government of quite a different nature which made it no longer neccessary to maintain the Council for Native Develop- ment, so that this council was abolished in the year under review.

II. Local bodies


The Government's policy has always been directed towards local decentralization, the institution of territorial communities which foster their own interests, or in other words manage their own affairs. The basic rules for these territorial communities are laid down in the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea, Chapter 8, Section 2.

To lay the foundations for such communities advisory councils were instituted in 1955 and 1958 in a number of rural regions and in two urban centres. These had in the first place the task of deliberating on the creation of a territorial community for the region concerned, the composition of the council, the tasks to be alloted to it, etc. and further the gaining of some experience. They have abolished agains in places where the institution of a territorial community has become a fact for the region concerned. They are now to be found only in the urban centres of Hollandia and Manokwari.


A. Regional communities

In the institution of territorial communities afforts are made in the first place to create regional communities for rural regions. The composition, organization, powers and obligations of the governing bodies of these communities are regulated by the Regional Community Ordinance (Government Gazette No. 84 of 1960). This also gives rules regarding the day-to-day managment and implementation of affairs, the meetings of the councils, the administration and the accounts of the financial resources, supervision, etc. Each regional community is instituted by an institution ordinance, which at the same time lays down the number of members of the council and gives further rules regarding the task and the powers of the community's governing body.

So far the following regional communities have been instituted:

regional communityapproximate number of residents elected membersapponted memberstotal number of members
Dafonsoro *)15,70016420
*) The regional community of Daronsoro covers the area of the Hollandia subdivision with the exception of the area of the urban centre.
Ragja Ampat17,00013215
Animha **)18,70012416
**) The regional community of Animha covers the area of the Merauke subdivision, with the exception of the Kimaan administration distract.

Most of the members of the councils are elected. A few members are appointed, in order to have those communak interests represented which, on account of the as yet embryonic development of suitable political organizations, do not yet find adequate expression in the elections.

The franchise makes no distinction between groups of the population, whilst men and women equally possess the right to vote and the right to be elected. The method of election is regulated in the Electoral Decree, Regional Councils (Government Gazette No. 85 of 1960). The members of the Japen- Waropen and Fak-Fak regional councils were elected by the system of indirect elections; the members of the other regional councils were elected directly. In the regional communities where direct elections were held the vote was as follows:

Radja Ampat82%
.. .. ..
.. .. ..
<<page 45>>

The Office of Mines comes under the Department of Economic Affairs.

In 1961 the staff of the Office of Mines consisted of 5 geologists and mining engineers, 1 assistant geologist, 2 superintendents, 2 chief supervisors, 2 supervisors, 2 clerks and 1 technical employee.

A bill of a mining act is being delt with by the New Guinea Council.

The following enterprises are active in Netherlands New Guinea:
The Netherlandsche Nieuw-Guinee Petroleum Maatscappij N.V., a joint undertaking of Royal Dutch/Shell, the Standard Vacuum Company and the Far Pacific Investment Company;
the Zuid-Pacific Koper Maatschappij, a joint undertaking of the Freeport Sulphur Company and the Oost Borneo Maatschappij N.V., which is to examine and mine the copper ore in the Carstensz Mountains;
a combine of United States Steel, W. Mueller and Co., the Netherlansche Handel-Maatschappij and the Oost-Borneo Maatschappij N.V., which is to examine and mine the nickel ores of Netherlands New Guinea.

In 1961 the Office of Mines performed the following work:
a. a number of borings were made for civil engineering projects;
b. extensive investigations were made in the area of the Islands river for the purpose of localizing minable deposits of gold. This investigation was not successful;
c. the plain south of the Carstensz Mountains was investigated for alluvial ore deposits. The area proved to be without ore;
d. the island of Waigeo was geologically mapped, use being made of older geological and photo-geological data;
e. after the exploration of the border had been completed, a start was made with the systematic geological mapping of the Central Highlands.

This first mapping of a desolate area difficult of access will take a number of years and will form the main task of the Office of Mines.

.. .. ..


<<page 66>>



The isolation, inaccessibility and impassability of the Terrirory and the dearth of natural resources led to New Guinea being left alone throughout the centuries. As a result it was only in a few coastal regions that contact with the outside world had some degree of fruitful effect on the social, cultural and economic structure of the Papuan community.

The difficult natural circumstances in which the poplation lived, and still live in part today, also hampered their social, cultural and economic development. These circumstances further prevented the development of the administrative institutions required by modern society.

These factors, which determined the original situation, play an important role even today. The present-day Papuan community is still characterized by a fragmented social structure. The small local groups, often consisting of only a handful of families, in which the population are scattered throughout the whole Territory, have little interrelation, so that contact is difficult to establish and collaboration with other groups can only be brought about gradually.

Meanwhile, despite these restraining influences, all kinds of changes are occuring. Naturally various stages of development may be noted in this respect, depending on the one hand on the length of contact with the outside world and on the other hand on the receptivity of the various sections of the populations to new influences.

As a result of the extension and intensification of administratives influence, information and advice from official circles, education, improved communications, the introduction of a money economy, which is gradually replacing the closed village economy, and the impact of new means and methods of production, new ideas leading to social change are gradually btreaking ground.

The Prostestant and Catholic Missions are making an important contribution to this, espacially in the field of education, which is particularly valuable because their work is helping at the same time to fill a spiritual vacuum which threatens to occur when the Papuan meets Western culture.

In many regions the population are changing increasingly to a more concentrated form of residence, which simplifies the introduction of education, arriculture extension and medical care.

In the urban centres a considerable contribution to social emancipation is being made by social centres, well-run women's clubs and sport. At many places study clubs have been able to form, in which the various facets of political and economic developments inside and outsiide the Territory are eagerly discussed.

With the introduction of representative councilss Papuan-run associations with political objectives have likewise been formed.


The most important human rights as laid down in the Declaration of Human Rights are guaranteed by law.

Slavery, and also forced or complusory labour to which the Convention of Geneava (1930) applies, is forbidden.

All persons in the Territory of Netherlands New Guinea have an equal claim to protection of their person and property (Section 4 of the Decree for the Regulation of the Administration of Netherlands New Guinea – the BNG – and Articles 6, 7 and 8 of the Declaration of human Rights – the DHR).

Expropriation of any propertty or right for public use can take place only after prior declaration by ordinance that the public interest requires expropriation and against compensation received or ensured beforehand (Section 127 of the BNG, Articles 17 and 29 of the DHR).

Any Dutch subject may be elected abd appointed to any public office (Section 7 of the BNG, Article 21 of the DHR).

Nobody requires prior permission to express his ideas or feelings in printing. The responsibility of authors, publishers, printers and distributors and the safeguards to be afforded against abuse of the freedom of the press, in the interests of the public order and morals, are regulated by ordinance (Section 8 of the BNG, Article 19 of the DHR).

Everybody has the right to submit petitions to the competent authority both in the Netherlands and in Netherlands New Guinea (Section 9 of the BNG, Articles 7 and 10 of the DHR).

The right of association and assembly is recognized and may be subjected to regulation and restriction by ordinance only in the interests of public order, morals or health (Section 10 of the BNG, Article 20 of the DHR).

Prosecutions can take place only before the appointed court (Section 129 of the BNG, Article 10 of the DHR).

Nobody may be arrested or taken into custody except on the orders of the competent authority (Section 134 of the BNG, Article 9 of the DHR).

No act constitutes an offence except by virtue of a legal penal provision preceding that act.

In the event of an amendment to the legislation after the time at which the act was performed, the provisions most favourab le to the accused shall be applied (Section 1 of the Penal Code, Article 11, section 2, of the DHR).

Entry of premises or a dwelling against the will of the occupant is permitted only on the orders of the competent authority (Section 135 of the BNG, Article 12 of the DHR).

The secrecy of letters entrusted to the post or to other public forms of transport is inviolable, except on the orders of the courts in the cases provided for by ordinance (Section 136 of the BNG, Article 12 of the DHR).

The right of everybody to freedom of worship is recognized, subject to the protection of the community and its members against criminal offences (Section 150 of the BNG, Article 18 of the DHR).

All professing various religious opinions enjoy identical civil and civic rights and have the same claim to hold dignities, offices and employments (Section 153 of the BNG, Articles 18 and 21, Section 2, of the DHR).

Public worship and the practice of religion are subject to no other restrictions than those laid down by ordinance in the interests of public order, peace and morals (Section 154 of the BNG, Article 18 of the DHR).

Education may be freely given, subject to supervision by the authorities (Section 170, subsection 2, of the BNG, Article 26 of the DHR).

Since it is important that these rights should not only be formally safeguarded but also materially realized, the Decree for the Regulation of the Admninistration of Netherlands New Guinea lays down that the protection of the indigenous population in particular against arbitrary acts by whomsoever forms one of the most important duties of the Governor (Section 37, subsection 1, of the BNG).

To perform these duties the Governor is granted far-reaching powers in the second subsection of that section; to protect the population persons may be forbidden to travel, stay or settle in certain parts of the interior, to import goods which are injurious to the population or to recruit workers in certain areas.

For instance, under the Inland Quarantine Ordinance 1951 it is forbidden to enter certain areas of the interior unless one is in possession of a health certificate, and under the Recruitment Ordinance the recruitment of workers in some regions is forbidden or made subject to certain conditions. For he same reasons the rights of he population to their land are protected in Section 39 of the BNG, amended by the Act of 30 June, 1960 (Netherlands Bulletin of Ats, Orders and Decrees No. 261 of 1960). Persons not forming part of the Papuan population may not have the disposal either directly or indirectly of land to which rights of the Papuan population attach, nor to premises, perennial plantings or forest stands on such land; exceptions must be laid down in law and this must define in which case, how and according to which rule they will be granted. This is apparently in contradiction with the spirit of Article 17 of the DHR. In reality this provision is necessary to prevent dispossession of the population. (See also Chapter 11, section B.2, Utilization of land and land tenure.)

Furthermore, the Papuan population can only be deprived of the right to their land in the public interest, on the basis of Section 127 of the BNG (see above), and these rights cannot be restricted by the authorities except on the basis of statutory regulations.


The status of women in the present-day society of New Guinea varies, depending on the various stages of development through which the local Papuan community is passing.

In the regions recently brought under administration, where warfare and head-hunting were the order of the day until recently, that status of women in the formal sense is lower than that of men, although in reality the influence that they have in society is often great and, for instance in the field

of property – managing and disposing of their personal possessions – women are definitely not man's inferior.

Woman's task, prviding food for the family and looking after the children, is often more difficult than that of the man, much of whose former work – waging war and making preparations to do so – has disappeared.

In the more developed areas a gradual change has occurred in the division of labour between man and woman as a result of the introduction of the money economy and of the cultivation of commercial crops, coupled with new agricultural methods. It is now the task of the man to provide part of the family's money income. The performance of paid labour is also bringing about changes in the old situation.

Under the influence of Christianity – there are now about 300,000 Christian Papuans – and as a result of the general evolution pg Papuan societyy, new legal conceptions are breaking ground in other senses, too, and other ethical standards are being adopted, in particular withh regard to the position of both parties when contracting a marriage.

In the traditional Papuan community the woman was restricted in her freedom of will with regard to concluding a marriage. Although the old views on this matter have by no means completely disappeared, and the dowry still plays an important part, the conviction is steadily growing that the parties must be free to make up their own minds about marrying.

In areas where there are regional communities the regional councils have declared themselves against too high dowries.

In the urban centres, where the ties with the tribal and village community and with the customs and iews prevalent there (which often hamper all progress) are less strong, the emancipation of women has made the greatest advances. There woman's position is practically equal to that of the man. There the man is entirely responsible for maintaining his family; the task of the woman is more confined to looking after the home, as a result of whih she has more time and opportunity to improve her mind. In this connection reference may be made to the steadily growing interest in the Papuan women's clubs.

The participation of Papuan girls in education may be described as entirely satisfactory. In the year under review 16,790 girls were attending schools for primary and continued education, as against 23,840 boys.

In the eyes of the law of the Territory, men and women are absolutely equal. They both possess the right to vote and the right to be elected to office. Women are equally entitled to occupy public posts.

In areas with indirect elections four women were elected as electors with great majorities. Tis shows that women are also participating in political development. In the New Guinea Council installed on 5 April, 1961, one seat is held by a woman.


During the year under review, after much preparatory and time-consuming work, a draft was completed of an ordinance establishing a uniform labour private law keyed to the international norms for all sections of the population in Netherlands New Guinea.

This draft devotes considerable attention to the principles laid down in the international labour conventions.

In mid 1961 18,986 Papuans working in Western-style employment were registered throughout Netherlands New Guinea. Of these, about 13,000 (68%) were in the subdivisions of Hollandia, Schouten Islands, Manokwari, Sorong, Fak-Fak and Merauke. Since Western-style employment is in the main offered in or near the chief towns of the subdivisions, this figure at the same time gives a picture of the native labour force within these urban centres. Over 7100 members of this labour force are migrants. Of these migrants, about 4000 were unmarried; of the married ones, more than 2600 lived with their families at the site of the work, whilst the families of about 500 of them had remained behind in the place of origin.

Over 6000 Papuans are in paid employment in the building trade, 1200 in factories oe workshops, 2300 in Western-style agriculture, stock-breeding, forestry, timer-felling, hunting and fishing, 1600 in transport and communications, 4600 in education, administration, public health, police, fire brigade, the hotel business, etc., and 3300 in other businesses.

Over 10,500 Papuans are in Government service and nearly 8500 work for private employers. In 1961 the total number of women in Western-style employment was 1345(1960: 999). The percentage of women in the total labour force, which in 1954 was 3, has steadily risen, and was 7 in the year under review.

Registration over the last five years gives the following picture:







in the urban centres






outised the urban centres












INDEX FIGURES (1955 = 100)






in the urban centres






outside the urban centres












A considerable number of the workers are employed in the building trade. Over the last five years the breakdown has been as follows.


building trades

other trades


4,139 (26%)

11,767 (74%)


3,832 (24%)

12,054 (76%)


5,020 (30%)

11,726 (70%)


5,256 (33%)

10,654 (67%)


6,065 (32%)

12,921 (68%)

A breakdown of the registered workers into single, married who have left their families behind in the villages, and married living with their families in the town gives the following picture for the above towns:



Urban centres

without family

with family










































Of the total Papuan labour force registered in the entire Territory during the year under review, 10,099 persons were single (55%) and 8,887 (45%) married; of the latter 7,363 were living with their families at their place of work.


The Government's unction withregard to labour matters is entrusted to the Labour Affairs Branch of the Department of Social Affairs and Justice. This branch is headed by a jurist, with a mechanical engineer on his staff.

Under the Labour Affairs Branch come the Labour Inspectorate and the Industrial Safety Superision Service. The Labour Inspectorate deals with the social and legal aspects of labour problems, whilst the duties of the Industrial Safety Supervision Service are evident from the service's name.

For the purpose of the Labour Inspectorate, Netherlands New Guinea is subdivided into two inspection districts. The territory of the Safety Supervision Service covers the whole of Netherlands New Guinea.

In order to make consultation possible between the authorities, employers and employees a committee was set up in 1961 which was given the name of Labour Affairs Committee. This tripartite committee consists of representatives of the Government, employers and employees. This committee has a dual function with regard to labour problems which are directly or indirectly related to the concept “labour”. It can make suggestions or give advice to both the Governor and business of its own volition or upon request.


The distribution of the Papuan labour force among various branches of trade and industry gives the following picture:

Group No.

Nature of business

Number of Papuan employees (1961)


Agriculture, stock-breeding. forestry, timber-fellimg, hunting, fishing, etc.



Mining above ground or below ground of coal, oil, gas, nickel, cobalt, karang, gravel, sand, etc.



Bakeries, shoe-making and sail-making firms, sawmills, furniture factories, stonebreakers, repair shops, shipyards, installation businesses, etc.



Firms in which construction work is done, such as the building, roads, bridges, dams, hydro-electric power stations, etc.



Public utility concerns, such as gas, electricity and water works, refuse-colleting and street cleaning services, etc.



Trade, shops, banks and insurance



Undertakings transporting persons and goods, warehousing concerns, firms storing goods and firms for communications, such as telegraph, telephone, etc.



Education, pub;ic health, administration, judicature, police, fire services, legal profession, hotels, restaurants and cafes, laundries, hairdressers, photographic dealers, cunemas, etc.


Domestic servants



Businesses which cannot be placed under one of the categories 0 to 8


Grand total


Of the Papuan labour force, 10,549 persons were in Government service and 8437 worked for private employers. In 1960 these figures were 9093 and 6817 respectively. In 1961 the sum of about 25,000,000 guilders was spent on wages, food and housing for Papuan wokers. This is about 5,000,000 guilders more than in 1960. See also Appendix XXVIII.


The facility of registering for work with the Labour Affairs Branch was first offered in 1958. However, as the number of persons availing themselves of this opportunity has steadily grown, a labour exchange was opened in Hollandia in mid September 1961.

Whereas in 1958 most of those registering for work were Europeans, the Papuans forming a small minority, the stress has now completely shifted. Partly through the departure of the locally hired Dutchmen, the majority of those registered are now Papuans. In Hollandia 921 registered for work during the year under review. Of these, about 25% could be found work.


There are two national trade unions, viz. The Christian Workers Union of Netherlands New Guinea (the CWNG/Persekding) and the General Catholic Officials Association (the ARKA), a regional division of the Dutch association of that name. At then end of 1961 the CWNG/Persekding had about 3000 members (1960: 3000) and the ARKA about 1300 members (1960: 1100).

During the year under review a number of private Catholic Papuan workers founded their own union in Merauke. Only Papuans can join this union, which has been given the name of “PERKABUKA” (Perkumpulan Kaura Buruh Katholiek). The PERKABUKA now has about 800 members.


During the year under review the intermediary of the Labour Inspectorate was requested with regard to 117 labour disputes. In most cases a quick and satisfactory solution could be arrived at by consultation between the workers and employers concerned under the auspices of the Labour Inspectorate.

The number of man-days lost during the year under review was about 960.

<<page 75>>

The Government attends to the provision of building sites, prepares these sites for building, constructs roads, and lays drains and water mains.

a. Health

Private persons can enter into an agreement with the Department of Public Health for medical attention; the contribution is 4% of their gross annual income.

The impecunions receive free medical aid.

Civil servants and their families are given medical care against a contribution of 1% of the civil servant's gross salary.

The medical care of Papuan workers is covered by the labour legislation, which includes the obligation of the employer to grant free medical aid, including medicaments, also in the event of injuries not incurred in his service.

As a part of after-care needy recuperating TB patients are given financial assistance to enable them to convalesce at home for a few months after the conclusion of hospital treatment. The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Social Affairs and Justice is responsible for the implementation of this scheme. In the year under review f. 41,441 was paid out to convalescing TB patients under this scheme.

In collaboration with the patient's doctor the above-mentioned branch also looks after the families left behind when a leprosy patient enters a leprosery. In all f. 20,975.55 was paid out during the year under review on this.

b. Unemployment

See under D. 4, The Labour Market.

c. Accidents and sickness

During the year under review 87 industralia accidents were reported to the Labour Affairs Branch, three more than in 1960. A survey covering the yers 1955 to 1961 follows:


Number of accidents

Minor injuries

Serious injuries

Fatal injuries




































d. Old age and physical infirmity

There is as yet no general scheme for old-age pensions.

The “Konijnenburg” shipyard at Manokwari is making preparations to set up a provident fund for its workers as a forerunner of a pension fund.

Those in need of assistance are given relief by the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Social Affairs and Justice, in close collaboration with the church organizations. At Hollandia, Manokwari and Merauke there are special committees which are responsible for granting social relief; for the other places aid is given under the supervision of the Heads of Local Administration.

Elderly and disabled Europeans without means and in need of care are sent to the Netherlands at Government expense.

Under the General War Injuries Regulations relief was paid during the year under review to disable war victims. Also under under these regulations payments were made to next-of-kin of war victims, including widows, mothers and children. During the year under review the number of persons receiving relief were 55, made up of 40 widows, 2 mothers of war victims, 8 children and 5 disabled persons.

e. Care of infants and expectant mothers

See Section J, “Public Health”.


The establishment of the Socoal Welfare Branch of the Department of Social Affairs and Justice consists of the head of the branch, four officers for social work and a small clerical staff.

For the financial year 1961 a sum of f. 795,700 (inc. f. 98,000 capital expenditure) was made available on the budget for this branch, to be used among other things for social aid, TB after-care, youth welfare, after-care of discharged prisoners, sport and recreation, social development work and libraries. For 1959 and 1960 the respective sums were f. 570,900 (including f. 22,000 capital expenditure) and f. 560,500 (including f. 45,000 for capital expenditure).

In collaboration with church and private organizations special care is being devoted to social development work among the Papuan population in the larger places. The church bodies have in their employment three social workers for social work among urban Papuans.

Also active in the field of social welfare are the Netherlands New Guinea Red Cross, the Green Cross Society and the St. Vincent Foundation.

The Netherlands New Guinea Red Cross is active in, among other things, the provision of reading matter and welfare work in hospitals.

The Green Cross Society is chiefly concerned with assisting in the nursing at home of bedridden patients. It runs well-attended consultation centres for infants at Hollandia and Manokwari.

The St. Vincent Foundation is principally engaged in alleviating the spiritual and material needs of individuals, for instance by furnishing them with food parcels or gifts of money and, in appropriate cases, by giving interest-free advances and looking after minors. The Foundation also runs a number of infant schools. The independent St. Vincent Foundation at Manokwari runs a children's home housing a number of children from unfavourable social environments.

Socio-cultural education work

In 1955 Papuan women's clubs were founded at a number of places in the Territory as a result of private initiative. Since then interest in the activities of these clubs has steadily grown. During the year under review their programma was extended. Papua women's clubs are now to be found in Hollandia and vicinity, Genjem, Kantumilena, Sarmi, Biak, Seroei, Manokwari, Sorong, Teminaboean, Inanwatan, Merauke, Mindiptanah, Mokbiran and Fak-Fak. There are 64 clubs (1960: 56), with over 1400 members in total (1960: 1189).

In these clubs, whose efforts are supported by the Government, the women are given instruction in sewing (making layettes for babies and clothes for themse;ves) and cooking; they are also taught about health and hygiene, diet, child care and budgeting housekeeping money.

Besides the promotion of self-activity considerable attention is paid to the training of Papuan women leaders. During the year under review three-monthly training courses for Papuan women leaders were held at Hollandia, Seroei, Biak and Manokwari.

Besides women's clubs there are girls' clubs, which are more along the lines of social clubs, but at which leasons in sewing and embroidery are also given.

In the month of April of the year under review, Miss Marjorie Stewart, specialist in women's club work in the employment of the South Pacific Commission, was in charge of a two weeks' course at Manokwari for women leaders of women's clubs. Participants in this course included European women leaders from Merauke, Hollandia and Sorong and a Papuan woman leader from Hollandia.

Poor Relief

During the year under review f. 175,740 was spent on poor relief, as against f. 228,000 in 1960.

Infant welfare

The Foundation for Protestant Education, the St. Vincent Foundation and the Biak Infant School Association manage institutions for infant welfare. In 1961 these organizations were paid a total of f. 48,782 in subsidies to help them meet their operating costs.

Sport and recreation

The number of registered sports clubs is 267, with a total membership of 6968.

During the year under review the sum of f. 101,000 was made available for sport and recreational purposes. Subsidies were given to help meet the cost of sporting encounters between Netherlands New Guinea and Australian New Guinea, viz. for the tennis matches and yacht races

held at Port Moresby between teams from Netherlands New Guinea and Port Moresby, for the interurban football match held at Merauke between Merauke and Daru and for the shool sports content between Wewak and Hollandia.

The Government was represented at the meeting organized in March at Noumea by the South Pacific Commission, for the purpose of starting the organization of the Pacific Games to be held every three years.

In view of the first such Pacific Games, to be held at Suva in 1963, the National Sport Federation Foundation has been set up, which functions as the coordinative territorial sports organization and prepares participation of the Territory in the games in the games in collaboration with the South Pacific Games Council.

Passages to the Netherlands for emergency social cases

During the year under review 47 persons were sent to the Netherlands at Government expense as social and socio-medical emergenies, whilst 136 persons were given an interest-free advance for the costs of a passage from Netherlands New Guinea to the Netherlands.


Prostitution occurs only sporadically.


The pattern of criminality varies from region to region, depending on the one hand on the degree of administrative influence and on the other hand on the character of the original culture.

In some cultures warefare (head-hunting) occupied an important and sometimes a central place, whilst in the whole Territory the Papuans took the law into their own hands almost entirely when settling disputes.

Assault, crimes of violence and crimes of morals occupy the principal place in the statistics of crime.

However, nowhere does crime form a problem that has got out of hand.

When cases are tried the punishments are adapted to the degree to which the population have already become acquainted and familiar with the new forms and standards of justice.

Juvenile delinquency, by which is understood criminality of young persons up to and including the age of sixteen, occurs to a very limited extent only, and then mainly in the urban centres. The most common offences are theft, assault and crimes of morals, theft being the main category.

The extent of juvenile delinquency is not such that it is necessary to have special juvenile courts.

However, the law offers the possibility of a juvenile delinquent not being tried, but being placed at the disposal of the Government, which then takes measures to educate the person concerned.

For a survey of the criminal cases tried by the Government courts and by the Papuan judges during the year under review, and of the number of persons tried, see Appendices XXXII, XXXIII and XXXIV.


a. Prison population

For this see Appendices XXXV and XXXV A.

b. Organization of prisons

The prisons are divided into two categories, viz. Central and local prisons. The general administration of the central prisons is in the hands of the Director of Internal Affairs, and that of the local prisons is the responsibility of the Residents. The requirements which these prisons must satisfy are laid down by the Director of Internal Affairs.

The same penal system, based on the Penal Institutions Regulations, applies in all prisons.

See Appendix XXXV.

c. Penal System

Imprisonment and detention are servered communally.

Discipline is maintained by the imposition of displinary punishments, viz. Solitary confirnment (for not more than fourteen days) and curtailment of privileges. Corporal punishment is forbidden.

d. Remission, work, privileges

Prisoners work both inside and outside the prisons.

In the event of good conduct various privileges are granted, including a bonus for work done.

As a reward for constant good conduct, annual remission of three months' imprisonment is given.

In Hollandia Prison two vocational courses are given, one in carpentary and one in tailoring. Furthermore, in a number of prisons elementary education in reading and arithmetic is given to the illiterates.

Reference should also be made to the possibility of provisional release on condition of good conduct.

e. After-care of discharged prisoners

The Central Board for the After-Care of Discharged Prisoners and a Local After-Care Committee are situated at Hollandia. Outside the capital administrative officials are responsible for this work.

The Central Board for the After-Care of Discharged Prisoners advises the Director of Social Affairs and Justice on provisional release and on all fundamental matters regarding after-care. The Central Board – in consultation with the Director of Social Affairs and Justice – promotes after-care of discharged prisoners in general.

The Local After-Care Committee has the task of aiding discharged prisoners, for whom it helps to find work and, if required, accommodation as far as possible. It also has the duty of sdvising the Director of Social Affairs and Justice on proposals for provisional release. On request it advises and informs the competent suthority on instances of provisional release and on the special conditions with which those released may be made to comply.

A person sentenced to imprisonment can be provisionally released when two thirds of his sentence and also at least nine months have elapsed. He is then put on probation for the given period, during which he has to satisfy certain conditions. If he does not satisfy these conditions whilst he is on probation, the provisional release may be cancelled and he may be returned to prison to serve that portion of his sentence that was outstanding when he was provisionally released.

In that case the time that has elapsed between the provisional release and the resumption of imprisonment is not deducted from the length of the sentence. During the year under review fifteen Papuans were provisionally released, whilst the provisional release of four Papuans was cancelled after some time.


Public health care is the responsibility of the Government. A number of missionary societies do medical work, for which they receive a subsidary from the authorities.

The Territory has 22 medical districts. Each medical district has a hospital or some other admission facility and a number of out-patient clinics, with a medical staff under a doctor who is directly responsible to the Director of Public Health.

Special sections of the Department of Public Health for the whole Territory are those for the control of endemic diseases (malaria, yaws, tuberculosis and leprosy), maternal and child welfare and health education. There are also section for the training of Papuan medical personnel, for dental care, pharmaceutical supplies and the care of mental defectives, together with a Central Medical Laboratory.

The heads of these sections are likewise immediately subordinate to the Dircteor.

At the Central Office the Director is assisted by the Subdirector and also by three Government doctors, who are responsible for the following:


environmental sanitation


international health matters

quarantine and smallpox control

documentation and statistics

matters concerning medical examinations


The administrative staff of the Central Office attends to general affairs, staff matters, financial and budget affairs and technical matters.

Collaboration with other Departments takes place in, among other bodies, the National Council, made up of experts in agriculture, education, public health and administration. With regard to environmental sanitation there is close cooperation with the Department of Public Works.


The number of doctors and dentists in Government service in Netherlands New Guinea in the year under review was 66 (1960: 63). Furthermore, a number of mission doctors do work on behalf of the population.

The job breakdown of the doctors in Government service in 1961 was as follows:


Central Office




Preventive Sections

Malaria control



Yaws control






Leprosy control



Maternal and child welfare



Health education



Central Medical Laboratory




Medical Care




Internal medicine






General service



Dental surgery





For a complete list of medical personnel see Appendix XXXVI and for a table showing staff directly available for the medical care of the population in the years 1954 – 1961 see Appendix XXXVI A.


The cost of medical care *) in recent years have been the following:


f. 3,209,000




f. 4,400,000



f. 5,900,000



f. 6,300,000



f. 6,800,000



f. 7,000,000



f. 7,500,000



f. 8,700,000




f. 10,500,000


*) excluding indirect costs off personnel and transport

**) budget figure.

In the year under review the sum of f. 1,485,320 was spent on capital construction on behalf of the Department of Public Health.

Private bodies were given Government subsidies totalling f. 373,200 (1960: 323,000) on behalf of the medical aid to the population.

The aid received from UNICEF during the year under review was:

for malaria control

f. 140,500

for environmental sanitation

f. 15,300

for maternal and child welfare

f. 96,400


f. 252,200

(1960: f. 191,000)


The number of Government hospitals is 21 (1960: 19), whilst one hospital is run by the Protestant Mission; the number of Government out-patient climics is 112 (1960: 112), of which 91 (1960: 88) are rural out-patient clinics (four with admission facilities).

The total number of beds in the hospitals and out-patient clinics is now 1168 (1960: 1164). The number of nursing days in 1961 was 296,224.

The number of beds in the “Irene” psychiatric clinic is 48, and the number of nursing days was 16,646.

In the leproseries 544 patients were being nursed at the end of 1961, with 193,351 nursing days.

The number of curative treatments given at out-patient clinics, rural out-patient clinics and during tours by doctors and nurses totalled 1,051,104 in 1961 (1960: 1,033,789). For further details see Appendices XXXVII and XXXVIII.

During the year under review a start was made with the construction of a new 130-bed hospital at Biak. New wards were finished at Ajamaroe and Wasior. The final drawings for the Medical Centre at Hollandia, and also the draft plan for a new hospital at Manokwari, to be paid for out of the EEC Development Fund, were submitted. The leproseries at Seroei, Kaimana and Merauke commenced operations.

The supplying of the hospitals, out-patient clinics and the sections of the Department as regards medicine, dressings, medical instruments, insecticides and chemicals is the function of the Pharmaceutical Supplies Section, headed by a pharmaceutical chemist. The turnover during the year under review was f. 1,200,000.

A total of some 106,000 kg of medicines, etc., were sent to places outside Hollandia.

Some of the medicines are prepared in the Central Dispensary, which possesses modern equipment. The medicines are made up by three certificated Papuan junior pharmacists, under the supervision of an assistant pharmacist.

In the chemical laboratory medicines supplied both from the Netherlands and from the Central Dispensary are regularly checked. Further, regular dietary investigations are made, and drinking water is also chemically analysed.

In the Central Medical Laboratory investigations are made on behalf of the entire Territory. The available laboratory space was extended by a department for nutritional research, whilst separate departments were formed for tuberculosis research and general bacteriological research. Collaboration with research centres in the Netherlands and the USA was intensified.

There were 12,565 determinations in 1961, made up as follows:

General bacteriological examinations


Tuberculosis examinations


General serology


Lues serology


Yaws serology


Clinical examinations


Drinking water analyses






Dental care has treatment centres at Hollandia, Biak, Manokwari, Merauke and Sorong. The smaller places are also visited regularly. The total number of treatments in 1961 was 17,974.


The following courses are given for medical personeel in Netherlands New Guinea:
1. Nursing School:

5 years
Trains nurses, Netherlands New Guinea diploma, in three categories, viz.:
 male or female hospital nurse
 Public Health nurse
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at end of 1961: 149.
2. Course for male or female orderly
(formerly auxiliary nurse)
2 years
Trains hospital orderlies.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 160.
3. Course for female maternal and child welfare nurse
(formerly infant welfare nurse)
2 years
Trains on behalf of the Maternal and Child Welfare Section. Work at village level.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 72.
4. Course for male or female mental orderly
(formaly male or female mental nurse)
2 years
Trains orderlies for the psychiatric clinic.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 9.
5. Course for laboratory technician
(formerly laboratory assistant)
3 years
Trains independently working staff for the hospital laboratories.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 6.
6. Course for malaria control assistant
3 years
Trains independently working laboratory staff for the Malaria Control Section.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 10
7. Course for junior pharmacist
3 years
Trains independently working personnel for hospital dispensaries.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 9.
8. Course for female dentist's assistant
2 years
Trains dentist's assistants with limited task.
Entrance requirement: continuation school diploma.
Number of pupils at the end of 1961: 2.

Since 1954 the following diplomas have been awarded:

male or female nurse, Netherlands New Guinea diploma, three categories


male or female orderly


female maternal and child welfare nurse


male or female mental orderly


laboratory technician


malaria control assistant


junior pharmacist


female dentist's assistant


A Papuan pupil with the diploma of the intermediate secondary school was admitted to the course for auxiliary doctor at the Medical School of Port Moresby. The total number of Papuan pupils studying in Port Moresby has thus increased to eight.

Three pupils with the intemediate secondary school diploma left for Suva to begin their studies at the School for Auxiliary Dentists, thus bringing the total studying there to five.

The following were sent to the Netherlands:

two junior pharmacists for further training as assistant pharmacists;

two laboratory technicians for further training as analysts;

one young man to be trained as a dental mechanic.

The year 1961 was an important year for the training of nurses, Netherlands New Guinea diploma. In September 1961 the Nursing School was opened as part of the Central Hospital at Hollandia.

The training system was completely transformed and adapted to modern views with regard to course in general and course for nursing personnel in particular. Three Dutch nurses with Netherlands diploma were attached to this course as full-time instructors. Two of them are graduates with the Diploma of Nursing (Certificate of Teaching in Schools of Nursing), New Zealand.

The course for public health nurse was improved. For further details of the courses see Appendix XLII.


See what is said about this in Chapter 1, section C, Population.


Malaria and filariasis

The malaria control project was continued with support from the WHO and the UNICEF.

The progress that has been made – in various regions transmission has been interrupted – led to the institution of malaria case detection and supervisory measures in several regions, comprising over 80,000 persons by the end of 1961. These measures have proved of importance in the tracing of the remaining transmission foci. It is the intention to introduced these measures in other areas in 1962.

In 1961 the campaign was extended according to plan. By the end of 1961 a total of 250,000 persons were under the protection of insecticides, whether or not combined with mass treatment.

In consultation with the Regional Bureau of the WHO at Manila it was decided to propose that the existing campaign to converted into a pre-eradication programme. A draft plan of operations for 1962/1963 was submitted for this purpose.

The medicated salt project was continued in the districts of Arso, Waris and Upper Tor, whilst a start was made with the distribution of medicated salt in the East Coast district (Sarmi). These projects have made an important contribution to assessment of the method. For the time being the value of the method for the conditions prevalent in Netherlands New Guinea seems limited.

The entomological research project, for which a grant was received from the WHO, got going. The first data have meanwhile become available. Routine examinations made regular progress.

Special stress was laid on the training of Papuan personnel.

A number of Papuan squad leaders were appointed. The laboratory technicians were given continued in-service training in connection with their future task in the direction of the supervisory measures.

In August the Second Interterritorial Malaria Conference for the South-West Pacific was held at Hollandia. This was attended by representatives of Australian New Guinea and the British Solomon Islands, whilst the Regional Bureau of the WHO at Manila also sent a delegate. Besides the many common technical and operational problems, collaboration along the frontiers was discussed.

A malaria control assistant from Australian New Guinea is attending a continued malaria course at the Department in Hollandia.

In the field of filariasis control the extremely favourable result of the project at Inanwaran led to the implementation of a similar control project in the Kokoda area.


By mid 1961 the contractual agreement with WHO/UNICEF, under which 400,000 persons had to be treated in the intial mass campaign, had been fully complied with. By the end of 1961 this number was 401,778 persons.

Further expansion of the mass campaign is meeting with practical difficulties, through the inaccessibility of the Territory and the difficulty of getting at the population. In the Central Highlands, too, it was not possible to start a mass campaign. In these areas, too, it is proving that systematic treatment at out-patient clinics is gradually reducing the number of suffers from yaws. In 1961 2570 yaws patients were treated in the Central Highlands (1960: 3605 patients).

Yaws in the areas reached by the mass campaign is now only sporadically observed. Districts from the subdivisions of Hollandia, Nimboran, Keerom and Merauke were added to the consolidated areas.

A population of some 130,000 persons now live in areas where yaws has been almost entirely eradicated. In the remaining areas annual resurveys are still being performed. In all 164,000 persons were contracted, of whom 139,591 were examined, 357 cases of infectious yaws (1/4%) being found.


During 1961 the central detection team were able to examine 23,356 persons out of 25,274 persons who could be reached. Of these, 19,430 were old enough for photofluoroscopy.

The number of chest clinics is now nine, all with full-time personnel.

The facilities for X-ray examination scattered throughout the country were extended from 13 to 19.

By the end of 1961 a total of 2680 ptients were receiving out-patient treatment. With a total capacity of 180 beds, 450 patients were able to undergo clinical treatment.

In the central register, in which only bacteriologically checked cases appear, 522 cases were recorded: 474 Papuans and 48 non-Papuans; this brought the total of registered cases to 2601 Papuans and 370 non-Papuans.

In the fourth quarter of 1960 a pilot campaign was performed for a comparative study with thermolabile liquid vaccine and thermostable freeze-dried glutamate vaccine.

The progress of the conversion of those vaccinated in the area concerned was closely followed for a year. The results of the investigation are now known: it has been decided to start using freeze-dried glutamate BCG for the who;e country in 1962. This makes it possible to include in the mass BCG cmpaigns areas which so far have been inaccessible to the thermolabile wet vaccine.

The situation of the revaccination campaigns may be given as follows:



1st vaccination campaign



2nd vaccination campaign



3rd vaccination campaign



4th vaccination campaign



5th vaccination campaign







In the last five years a general inventory has been taken of leprosy, in which the two doctors working in the Leprosy Control Section, in cooperation with the local Government doctors, examined the Territory village by village and house by house.

It has been found from this that the greater part of the coastal strip is infected, whilst the Central Highlands may still be described as free from leprosy.

The total number of leprosy cases at the end of 1961 was 5246 (of which 852 were lepromatous cases). The equivalent figures for the end of 1960 were 4685 and 761 respectively.

There are two foms of treatment: the tuberculoid (“non-infectious”) cases in out-patient clinics and the lepromatous (“infectious”) cases in treatment centres (leproseries).

Owing to the fact that all Papuan student nurses and already certified Papuan nurses are gradually having a tour of duty in one of the leproseries, the number of places where DDS treatment can be given is growing each year, until ultimately all the rural out-patient clinics will have such facilities.

Moreover, Papuan nurses are centrally stationed in six large leprosy centres. These nurses exercise general supervision of diagnosis, treatment and registration of the patients in hospital and rural out-patient climics, and pay special attention to patients discharged from leproseries.

The total number of tuberculoid cases receiving out-patient treatment in Netherlands New Guinea rose from 8 in 1952 to 791 at the end of 1961 (1960: 630).

The lepromatous cases are treated in the five treatment centres (leproseries) at Sorong, Wasior, Serei, Kaimana and Merauke. The total number patients admitted at the end of 1961 was 544 (1960: 482).

The total number of nursing days in the leproseries was 193,351 (1960: 163,405); the number of nursing days in the hospitals in the leproseries was 13,794 (in 1960: 10,612).

In 1961 136 patients were discharged from the leproseries, thus increasing the total of patients receiving after-care as at 1 January, 1962, to 351.

The return to the community nowhere created difficulties.

The leproseries at Kaimana and Merauke were officially opened during the year under review, and the Seroei leprosery was completed. All the leproseries are occupied and are in full use.

Much support was received from charity, including gifts of 10 houses for patients, 3 tuberculosis pavilions, 1 boarding establishment for children and 1 out-patient clinic.

In the Sorong, Wasior and Merauke leproseries there are village schools. Moreover, during the year under review a continuation school was opened in Sorong. In all 85 children are attending these schools.

Much attention is being paid to sport and recreation.

In all leproseries it is now possible to do paid work, with which a start was made in 1960 in the Sorong leprosery. All patients are incorporated in this, except the children. The principal forms of work are farming, fishing and stock-breeding, together with home industries. Besides free accommodation, food clothing and treatment the patients receive a monthly payment varying from 10 to 30 guilders.

The families left behind by patients admitted to the leproseries qualify where necessary for social assistance from the Government. To support these social measures the assistance of a Social Work official was obtained.

The second doctor of the Leprosy Section left for a 3-month WHO fellowship in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, Hongkong and India.

At Sorong a leprosy conference was held, an annual opportunity for contact between the two section doctors and the five heads of leproseries.


During the year under review there were no cases of smallpox. The existing vaccination situation was kept at the same level. The internationally approved RIV smallpox vaccine replaced the Bandung vaccine. The number of vaccinations was 62,657, of which 14,059 were for the first time.

Other infectious diseases

This year, too, no cases of quarantinable diseases occured.

The following diseases occurred in epidemic form:


2436 cases reported


2326 cases reported

mumps (parotitis epidemica)

1286 cases reported

Whooping cough

1405 cases reported

Influenza or influenza-like diseases occurred this year in epidemic form, but on the whole mildly. This was also true of the measles epidemic. The mumps epidemic of 1960 ened in 1961.

A serious whooping cough epidemic with a large number of fatal cases afflicted the population of South New Guinea. Mass whoping cough vaccination prevented the disease from spreading further.

The following diseases are endemic:

amoebic dysentry

543 cases reported

bacillary dysentry

758 cases reported

infectious dysentry

5629 cases reported


951 cases reported

The following diseases occurred only sporadically:


0 cases


25 cases


9 cases


1 case


12 cases


0 cases

hepatitis infectiosa

148 cases

scrub typhus

18 cases


10 cases

enteric fever

23 cases


The most important nutritional problem is the shortage of potein in the population's daily diet.

During the year under review particular attention was devoted to this deficiency. Analyses were made of the most common foodstuffs. Further, the eating of food rich in protein was greatly publicized. In particular the importance of using the good and inexpensive skimmed milk powder was stressed. A considerable increase in the consumption of legumes was perceptible; the population were given advice and information on how to incorporate legumes into their diet.

The staple diet changed to some extent in that in the urban centres in practicular the population are already spending about 14% of their income on rice. The imported rice is vitaminized.

On behalf of the sago staple diet a baking mould was designed and tested. Since this mould was completely accepted by the population, it will be possible to put them on the market at a low price. Tests were also made with sago grinders to replace the tiring sago-beating.

Since the sweet potato is the main item of diet in the Central Highlands, an investigation was made into the protein content and the amino acid composition of the tubers and the leaves, which are eaten as a vegetable. In South New Guinea the cultivation of the root crop Dioscorea aculeata (kembili) was particularly promoted.

In order to allow the population to have more animal protein, sheep and poultry were issued, fish fry was distributed after ponds had been laid out, and information was given on the keeping of pigs.

Publicity for the planting of nut-trees and other fruit-trees was intensified. The first harbest of cashew nuts took place.

Since the nutritional situation of the population is not only determinated by the daily diet, but also by diseases, such as malaria and the parasitical intestinal diseases, stress was laid among other things on the maintenance of the general health and hygienic measures.

An illustrated guide was issued among housewives.

Diet investigations at continuation schools and in other training institutes, police barracks and the like took place.

In December 1961 a start was made with the goitre investigation in the Central Highlands.


Premature birth, malnutrition and dieases of the intestinal and respiratory system still prove to be the principal causes of infant mortality. Among the other age groups pneumonia, intestinal complaints and malignant growths play an important part.


The village hygiene project prepared in previous years, a pilot and demonstration project for environmental sanitation, was put into effect during the year under review.

For this purpose the WHO made available a sanitary engineer, previsionally for a period of two years. UNICEFF gave materials to the value of $16,500. The Government supplied supplementary material and made a senior official available as counterpart for the WHO engineer. Four Papuan junior technical school graduates started training as junior sanitary officers.

The pilot project comprises 16 villages on the Schouten Islands with a total population of some 6000. The preparatory technical investigation in these villages was concluded in the year under review with the aid of the local population, whilst a start was made with the construction work proper.

The most important work task relates to the provision of water of reliable quality and in sufficient quantities. The investigation has shown that the laying of water mains in many cases need not be more expensive than the digging of water wells. Other items on the programme are the construction of latrines for a reliable removal of faeces, the provision of bathing and washing facilities and the removal of domestic refuse by the construction of compost pits.

The Biak-Noemfoor regional community is closely concerned with this project. The Regional Council made the sum of f. 30,000 available for 1962 for the procurement of materials on behalf of other villages on the Schouten Islands which have not been included in the WHO pilot project.


As in pass years, the improvement of the health of mothers and children was entrusted to the Maternal and Chld Welfare Section.

At the beginning of the year under review the pedologist made available by the WHO, Dr. H. M. C. Poortman, arrived. He will assist the Section for a year as adviser. The matron who went to the United States in 1959 on a WHO fellowship resumed her work during the year under review.

The activities of the Maternal and Child Welfare Section were further expanded during the year under review. At the end of 1961 103 maternal and child welfare nurses and 3 midwives, Netherlands New Guinea diploma, were active.

The activities of the Section during the year under review (with the achievements of prvious years between brackets) were as follows:







Consultations regarding



( 68,142)












expectant mothers


( 17,912)




( 5,229)



( 1,901)

( 1,710)

( 1,397)

( 1,374)

( 1,146)

Home visits


( 63,105)




( 4,782)

Population covered by



( 57,000)





During the year under review an investigation was instituted in those areas where the Section is continuously active into the mortality rate among infants. The following data were obtained for the period October 1960 – September 1961:

(in the following statistics the terminology used by the WHO is followed)

  1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956
Consultations regarding            
   infants 77,811 (68,142) (59,777) (52,364) (42,077) (25,078)
   toddlers   106,612   (105,347)   ( 88,317)   ( 47,422)   ( 37,055)   ( 22,807)
   expectant mothers 22,745 (17,912) (16,693) (12,367) (11,821) ( 5,229)
Deliveries 2,521 (1,901) (1,710) (1,397) (1,374) (1,146)
Home visits 78,405 (63,105) (48,142) (24,000) (12,000) ( 4,782)
Population covered by
80,000 (57,000) (55,000) (50,000) (44,300) (41,000)

During the year under review an investigation was instituted in those areas where the Section is continuously active into the mortality rate among infants. The following data were obtained for the period October 1960 - September 1961:
(in the following statistics ther terminology used by the WHO is followed)

Centre Attended
Twins Maternal
Hollandia-town 374 49 7 - 13
  Sentani-distr. 273 84 13 - 8
  Nimboran-distr. 45 83 5 - 2
  Depapre-distr. 48 42 1 1 1
  Demta-distr. 25 44 1 2 2
Schouten-Island 391 249 8 1 18
Japen-Island 277 215 4 2 17
Manokwari-town 283 91 8 - 10
Merauke-town 201 20 1 1 6
  Okaba-distr. 104 61 2 2 7
  Moeting-distr. 22 8 - - -
  Kimaan-distr. 43 98 3 2 5
Fak Fak-town and district 36 110 3 3 6
  Teminaboean-town and distr. 36 69 1 1 2
Total 2108 1223 57 15 97
0 - 1

1 day-
1 month

1 - 12 months

in 0/00

Hollandia-town 3 6 12 50 54
  Sentani-distr. 2 11 22 111 124
  Nimboran-distr. 1 5 5 84 62
  Depapre-distr. 1 1 6 89 74
 Demta-distr. - 5 5 147 200
Schouten-Island 5 24 30 93 63
Japen-Island 7 11 13 64 94
Manokwari-town 4 7 12 62 49
Okaba-distr. 2 4 6 73 153
Moeting-distr. 1 1 2 133 170
Kimaan-distr. 4 3 12 136 140
0 - 1
1 day-
1 month
1-12 months
in 0/00
Fak Fak-town and distr. 1 2 14 119 -
Teminaboean-town and distr. 3 1 10 133 -
Total 35 84 157 64 86

The training of midwives, which started in 1960, first in Iananwatan, for the time being as an experiment, and later in the districts of Sentani and Demta (subdivision of Hollandia) was continued in the year under review. Courses were given at Netar (Sentani) and at Seroei. In all over 100 mid-wives have now been trained.

For the supervision of the maternal and child welfare nurses a start has been made with using Papuan nurses. A start has also been made with a post-graduate course of one year for the best maternal and child welfare nurses.

From 17 to 23 March, 1961, the second national conference for maternal and child welfare nurses was held at Merauke. This coincided with the conference of regional doctors for South New Guinea.

The distribution of milk was considerably extended. At present UNICEF powered milk is being issued to more than 12,000 consumers.

Besides the skimmed milk further material assistance was received from UNICEF in 1961, too.


Community development is a method of approach forming part of development policy, in which efforts are made to improve the standard of living of not only the individual but also a whole community through self-activitiy. In this social and economic measures are applied, coordinated with education in the widest sense of the word.

It is in essence training for independence and the fostering of a feeling of solidarity by further changes in the population's ideas and actions in such a sense that the Papuans themselves come to play an active part in promoting their own interests.

In Netherlands New Guinea efforts are being made in a variety of ways to put this idea into practice. Needless to say, an important part in this has to be played by education and the popular information service. Furthermore, the various departments give specific information in the fields of cooperatives, agriculture, fisheries, stock-breeding and public health.

There is no separate organization for community development. Community development is as it were incorporated in the existing machinery of government. The general coordination of the various activities in the field of community development is performed centrally by a planning committee and is exercised at regional level by the resident and the subdivisional head. Both the New Guinea Council and the regional councils and informal local advisory bodies have a say in outlining the policy of community development.

Separate aspects which relate to community development are the development of local autonomy at village and regional level, the foundation of social centres and clubs in urbanized places, cooperatives and agricultural regional projects, which are dealt with elsewhere in this Report.

Particulary promising results have been obtained with the agricultural regional projects, in which, especially in the initial stages, stress is laid on the economic aspect, in particular agricultural development, as a basis for progress in other fields (see Chapter II, section B. 11, "Agricultural Regional Projects").

As a necesaary complement of stressing the economic aspect of community development, very great attention is paid to the creation of a Papua cadre and a Papuan elite.

Within the framework of Dutch Australian administrative cooperation, an administrative official and Government ethnologist took part in a seminar devoted to community development which was organized during the year under review by the Australian School of Pacific Administration at Sydney.


"Man's inhumanity to man is not only perpetrated by the vitriolic actions of those who are bad,
it is also perpetrated by vitiating inaction of those who are good
- Martin Luther King.